Internet: Ukuntu ubuhinga bukoreshwa mu guhohotera abagore

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu THINKSTOCK

Telefone ngendanwa na internet ni ibikoresho ngira kamaro, ariko kandi ni ibirwanisho; ONU iragabisha kw'ihohoterwa ry'abagore muri ubwo buryo.

ONU ivuga ko ihohoterwa ry'abagore riciye kuri internet rifise ingaruka mbi zimeze nk'izo gukubitwa, cane cane iyo ubwo buhinga bushika mu turere twa kure tw'isi.

Aho umukinyi w'amafilme w'Umwongerezaki Emma Watson yavuga ku bijanye n'ukungana kw'ibitsina mu nama y'ishirahamwe mpuzamakungu ONU, ntiyari azi ko ariko ariteza abamutuka igihe cose bo hirya no hino kw'isi.

Co kimwe na Zoe Quinn ahingura imikino yo kuri video, atamenye ko azogira ingaruka aho yaja mu mwuga wiganjemwo abagabo.

Umugambi w'urwanko wataziriwe "Gamergate", watanguye igihe uwahoze ari umukunzi wa Quinn yamubeshera ko yahinduye igitsina kugira umukino wiwe uvugwe neza mu bitangazamakuru.

Ivyakurikiye ni ibitutsi bitagira izina vy'abakina imikino kuri internet, bamugabisha ko bazomwica canke bakamusambanya ku nguvu.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu ITU. Jacobson Gonzalez
Image caption Zoe Quinn atunganya inkino zo kuri video, ubu ari mu barwanya ihohoterwa rica mu buhinga bwa none. Ubutumwa bwanditswe n'uwahoze ari umukunzi wiwe bwatumye abakina inkino zo kuri internet batanguza isekeza ryo kumutuka no kumurwanya.

Ibisa n'ivyo kandi vyashikiye umukinyi rurangiranwa w'amafime w'i Hollywood muri Amerika, Jennifer Lawrence, yahohotewe mu bijanye n'igitsina igihe amafoto yiwe ataco yambaye, yakwirakwizwa hirya no hino kuri internet.

Uturorero: ONU igabisha ivuga ko muri ino minsi internet ikwiye hose, ubuhinga bwacitse igikoresho co "guhohotera abagore n'abakobwa."

Amamiriyoni y'abagore hirya no hino kw'isi bahura n'ikibazo co - guhohoterwa muhira bifatiye ku gitsina - ni ukuvuga ko bahohoterwa gusa kubera ko ari abagore.

Iterambere mu buhinga bw'itumanako hamwe n'imbuga nkoranyambaga (facebook, twitter, whatsapp,...), vyabaye ubundi buryo bwo guhohotera abagore.

ONU ivuga ko hageze ko "isi ihaguruka".

IHOHOTERWA RY'ABAGORE

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barahohoterwa mu buzima bwabo

  • 73% vy'abagore bakoresha internet baramaze guhohoterwa

  • 1 in 5 bumva internet itabereye kuri bo

  • Ishuro 27 nizo umugore ashobora guhohoterwa kurusha umugabo

ONU igereranya ko 95% vy'ugusotorana hamwe no gutyoza bibera kuri internet bitumbera abagore.

Uwujejwe ivy'abagore muri ONU, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, agira ati: "Ubugizi bwa nabi kuri internet bwatumye iciza c'ubwigenge cari citezwe kuri nternet kigabanuka, rimwe na rimwe ikaba yarabaye ikibanza c'abantu batazwi bakora amabi bishakiye ku bagore n'abakobwa."

Abahinga mu vy'ubuhinga bwa none bavuga ko ihohotera rifatiye ku gitsina hakoreshejwe ubuhinga bwa none ritakiri "ikibazo c'ibihugu bikize gusa", kuko cajanye n'iterambere rya telefone ngendanwa na Internet.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Abagore bo muri Kenya bagiye mu mabarabara mu gushigikira umugore yambitswe ubusa afotorwa na telefone ngendanwa ku gituro ca bisi. Iyo video yahanahanywe henshi cane mu 2014.

Vyongeye si ikibazo coroshe gutorera umuti, kuko ubuhinga bwa digitale ari nk'ikirirahabiri kuko bushora gutuma haba ihohoterwa ry'abagore co kimwe nk'uko bushobora gutuma abagore bumva batekanye kurusha, bakanigenga.

CABAYE NK'IKIZA

Mu gihe umugore umwe muri batatu ahura n'ico kibazo, ishirahamwe rijejwe amagara kw'isi OMS, rivuga ko ihohoterwa ry'abagore ari "ikibazo c'amagara kw'isi kimaze kuba nk'ikiza", kuva kw'ihohoterwa ribera muhira gushika ku ribera mw'ibarabara, gukoreshwa mu bumaraya, gusambanywa ku nguvu hamwe no kwica abagore.

Imbuga nkoranyambaga zatumye iki kibazo cunyuka.

Baroness Patricia Scotland, yahoze ari umushinjaha mukuru mu Bwongereza anashinga ikigo kirwanya ihohoterwa rigirirwa abagore muhira, Corporate Alliance against Domestic Violence, avuga ati: "Internet ishikira abantu bose, co kimwe n'amabi ayiberako. Abagizi ba nabi ntibagihagarikwa n'imbibe canke kuba bategereye uwo bahohotera."

Ishirahamwe rikurikirana amabi abera kuri internet, Association for Progressive Communication, ryatororokanije ibintu bine bituma guhohotera bifatiye ku gitsina hakoreshejwe ubuhinga, kiba ikibazo cihariye: kutamenyekana uwo uri we, ubuhinga bworoshe kuronka, kuba ushobora gukora uri kure cane hamwe n'uko ata vyinshi bisabwa kugira ukore ico kibi.

Mu myaka 40 iheze, guhohotera bifatiye ku gitsina n'ihohoterwa ryo muhira vyari ibisanzwe. Muri kino gihe ubwo bugizi bwa nabi buri kuri internet. Bifatwa nk'ibisanzwe

Danielle Citron, author of "Hate Crimes In Cyberspace"

Ubugizi bwa nabi kuri internet buhera ku gutukana no kumaramaza umuntu, gushika ku gushaka kumugirira nabi ku mubiri, kandi internet ishobora kuba igikoresho co guhindura ugutukanira kure kukavamwo uguhohotera ku mubiri.

Kaofeng Lee wo mu kigo kiri i Washington kirwanya ihohoterwa ribera muhira, NNEDV, agira ati: "Gutera ubwoba hamwe no kuronka amakuru y'uwo uhohotera si ibintu bishasha mu rwego rw'ihohoterwa ryo muhira... Ariko ikoreshwa ry'ubuhinga bisugura ko ihohoterwa rishobora gushika kure kandi rigahungabanya cane.

Ubushakashatsi bw'ikigo NNEDV bwasanze 89% vy'abahohoterwa muhira biba vyaciye mu buhinga bwa none, kenshi hakoreshejwe uburyo butandukanye.

UBUGIZI BWA NABI KURI INTERNET

imyaka 18 gushika ku 24

urunganwe rushobora guhura no guhohoterwa kuri internet kurusha abandi

76%

vy'abagore hagati y'imyaka 14 na 24, guhohoterwa kuri internet birakaze cane

  • 56% bavuga ko bamaze guhohoterwa

  • 26% bamaze gukurikirwa n'uwushaka kubahohotera

  • 25% barahohotewe bifatiye ku gitsina

  • 5% bavuga ko hari ikintu cabaye kuri internet catumye babangamirwa

Kandi abahohoterwa, nk'uko ibiharuro bivyerekana, usanga bagenda baraba abakiri bato cane.

SI IVYO GUFYINA

Abahinga bavuga ko guhohoterwa kw'abagore ba rurangiranwa ku mbuga nkoranyambaga, vyafashije gushira ikibazo ahabona.

Si Jennifer Lawrence gusa canke Emma Watson. Nk'akarorero hari Caroline Ciraro-Perez, yigeze kuba umuntu wa mbere rurangiranwa avuga icongereza yahohotewe kur Internet, amaze gusaba leta y'Ubwongereza gushira amasura menshi y'abagore ku noti z'ico gihugu.

UBWOKO BW'IHOHOTERWA

  • 1. Kubuzwa amahoro kuri internet kuva ku butumwa bwa SMS gushika ku kurondera aho umuntu ahereye

  • 2. Guhohotera umukunzi - nk'akarorera kumutera ubwoba ko uzoshira ahabona ubutumwa bw'ibanga canke kumwihora mu kwerekana amasanamu yiwe ari gusa

  • 3. Ubugizi bwa nabi bwemerwa n'umuco - kuva ku kurungika ubutumwa bugaya ikindi gitsina gushika ku gushinga urubuga facebook rushimagiza gusambaya ku nguvu

  • 4. Gushurashuza ku nguvu - internet irakoreshwa mu kujana abagore ahantu bashobora gusambanywa ku nguvu

Yatumberejwe n'ibikorwa vyinshi ku mbuga nkoranyambaga, n'ukuvuga ibitutsi vy'urutavanako, kumusotora hamwe no kumutera ubwoba kandi bigirwa n'abandi bakoresha izo mbuga nyene.

Hari abibaza ko kuba ata mategeko abigenga mu bihugu vyinshi bikenewe gukemurwa - hari n'ikibazo c'uko iterabwo ribera kuri internet rifatwa minenerwe.

Danielle Citron, umwigisha kuri kaminuza ya Maryland, yananditse igitabo ku bugizi bwa nabi kuri internet citwa "Hate Crimes in Cyberspace", yihweje inyishu zitangwa kenshi ku bavuze ko bahohotewe kuri internet.

Yasanze bwinshi mu butumwa bw'abavuga ko bahohotewe kuri internet busubizwa mu kubabwira ko ari abariko barafyina, ko ari nka kurya kw'abakiri bato bikina.

Ahantu ho gukanda ngo utange amakuru iyo uhohotewe imbuga nkoranyambaga nyinshi zashizeko, ngo ni nk'igisharizo ata kamaro na kamwe gifise ku bibazo vy'ukuri.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu GETTY
Image caption Abantu babiri ba rurangiranwa bagiriwe ububisha bwo gushira ahabona amasanamu yabo bari gusa: Paris Hilton hashizwe ahabo video ariko arakora imibonano mpuzagitsina, mu gihe Jennifer Lawrence amasanamu yiwe ari gusa yibwe mu bubiko yarimwo.

Mu ngingo abona ko zikenewe, Citron yasavye leta ya Amerika gushirako amategeko ahana abashira amasanamu ateye isoni y'abandi kuri internet mu kwihora, gushira kuri internet amasanamu yerekana ibihimba vy'irondoka ata ruhusha, icaha kiri mu bugizi bwa nabi bubera muhira kandi gihanwa mu bihugu bike cane kw'isi.

Ariko yahuye n'abamunenga bimwe bikomeye, cane cane mu baharanira agateka k'abakoresha internet bavuga ko amategeko nk'ayo ashobora kubangamira uburenganzira bwo gushikiriza iciyumviro.

Jillian York, umuyobozi w'ikigo Electronic Frontier Foundation, yibaza ko imbuga nkoranyambaga zidakwiye kwihweza ivyandikwa kugira zirabe ibivugwa n'abagizi ba nabi.

Yanditse mu kinyamakuru Slate ati: "Vyoha akaryo atari keza imigwi ifise inyungu zihariye ko kubwiriza Facebook kuraba ibibazo vyayo bitega benshi."

Umuhinga mu vya internet, Jonathan Bishop, ku bwiwe avuga ko ku mbuga nyinshi nka Twitter abazijako usanga kenshi bitwara neza, ariko amategeko arakenewe iyo kwicungera binaniranye.

Icigwa giheruka ca ONU gisaba inganda zitanga ubuhinga bwa internet, kuva ku makompanyi ya telefone ngendanwa gushika ku mbuga nkoranyambaga, imbuga z'inkino hamwe n'imbuga zisanzwe, gufasha mu kugenzura ibibera kuri internet.

Ico cegeranyo kigira giti: "Amakompanyi y'ubuhinga bwa none agomba kwemera ko ubugizi bwa nabi kuri internet butumbera abagore n'abakobwa ari icago" kandi agatanda "igihozo ku bahohoterwa."

Ariko si ibintu vyoroshe: ibiharuro vyerekana ko umugore umwe muri batanu bakoresha internet baba mu bihugu aho ubugizi bwa nabi bufatiye ku gitsina buhanwa gake n'amategeko.

GUHANWA N'AMATEGEKO

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ni umugore akoresha internet aba mu karere ihohoterwa kuri internet rifatiye ku gitsina ridashobora guhanwa

  • 74% vy'ibihugu binanirwa gufata ingamba zibereye biciye mu masentare n'ibigo bihanisha amategeko

  • 65% vy'abagore bahohoterwa bashima kutavuga ko bahohotewe kuri internet batinya ingaruka mu kibano

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Abagore mu myiyerekano yo kwiyamiriza ihohoterwa rifatiye ku gitsina i Sao Paulo muri Brezile

IYO UBUHINGA BUBAYE UMUFASHA

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu BLACK DOT CAMPAIGN
Image caption Urubuga rukuru rw'isekeza Black Dot rwarahagaritswe, ariko izindi mbuga zigana ico ciyumviro zaravutse.

Mu kwezi guheze, isekeza Black Dot ryatangaje benshi kuri internet: ni uburyo bufise intumbero nziza yo kumenya abakorerwa ihohoterwa ribera muhira bakeneye gufashwa, bakabasaba gucapa akaburungu kirabura mu kiganza bagashira kuri internet amafoto bifashe, amwe bita selfie.

Umwe mu bateguye iryo sekeza yagize ati: "Mu masaha 24 gusa, isekeza ryashikiriye abantu ibihumbi bitandatu kw'isi, rikaba rimaze gufasha abagore batandatu."

Ariko ivyashitsweko n'iryo sekeza ntivyashigikiwe n'imigwi irwanya ihohoterwa, mu gihe itinya ko bishobora gutuma abahohoterwa babangamirwa kurusha n'ababahohotera.

Ariko kari akarorero k'ukuntu ubuhinga bwa none n'imbuga nkoranyambaga bishobora gufasha mu kurwanya ihohoterwa rifatiye ku gitsina.

Nk'utu turorero tumwe tumwe:

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP

- Muri Agentine, ikimenyetso hashtag #NiUnaMenos (Nta numwe agomba kutuvamwo) catangujwe mu ntango z'uno mwaka mu kwiyamiriza ubwicanyi bw'abagore budahanwa muri ico gihugu. Cafashwe nk'icivugo kizobandanya mu kurwanya ubugizi bwa nabi bubera muhira.

- Muri Pakistani, "Byte For All" canke "Aware Girls" vyarashimwe cane nka ngirakamaro mu kugerageza kurwanya ubwicanyi bufatiye ku gitsina. Ico ca kabiri gikoresha inkuru ibaze ku buhinga bwa digitale ihimiriza imiyabaga y'abakobwa mu kubigisha uburenganzira bwabo.

- Muri Republika iharanira Demokrasi ya Kongo, ubuhinga Medicapt bwatanguye gukoreshwa - bufasha gutororokanya, kutanga no kubika ibimenyetso vy'ihohoterwa rifatiye ku gitsina.

- Mu Buhindi, abaharanira agateka ka zina muntu bariko barategura urukino rwa video ruzohimiriza abagabo kurwanya ihohoterwa, hame no guhimiriza abagore kuvuga hakoreshejwe ikimenyetso hashtag nka #RingTheBell. Umugambi nk'uwo hakoreshejwe ubutumwa bwa video uriko uratunganywa muri Nicaragua.

- "Take back the tech" yatangujwe mu 2006 n'umugwi w'abagore muri Aziya y'ubumanuko bushira ubuseruko, bimaze kumenyekana ko telefone ngendanwa hamwe n'ubuhinga bwerekana aho umuntu aherereye vyakoreshejwe mu kwongera ubugizi bwa nabi bubagirwako. Buri mwaka itariki 25 z'ukwa cumi na rimwe basaba ko haba isekeza ry'iminsi 14 ryo kwiyamiriza ubugizi bwa nabi bufatiye ku gitsina.