Abimukira bava muri Afrika Israel itipfuza

israel migrants Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Abasaba ubuhungiro muri Israel bari mu myiyerekano begamiye uruzitiro rw'ikigo ca Holot

Haraheze hafi umwaka, igihugu ca Israel kiraha amahera abimukira bava mu bihugu vya Afrika, n’akaryo ko kugenda kuba mu kindi gihugu kigira gatatu, ariko BBC yaravuganye n’abagabo babiri, bavuga ko babataye ku kibuga c’indege ubwo nyene bacururuka indege. Umwe yaciye anyuruzwa, uwundi na we yaciye yibako atagira ikimuranga na kimwe.

Adam, yari afise imyaka 18 igihe yashika muri Israel mu 2011. Abamuteye baraturiye inzu yiwe I Darfur igihe hariko haraba Genocide, hanyuma aca amara imyaka y’ubuyabaga bwiwe mw’ikambi y’impunzi ya Onu mu kande gache ka Sudan.

Kubera ata kazoza yabona mw’ikambi y’impunzi kandi akaba ata n’ikimenyetso c’uko intambara ishobora guhera mu ntara ya Darfour, yaciye afata inzira ica mu buraruko bwa Misri, hanyuma aca mw’izinga ryigenga rya Sinai gushika muri Israel.

Ariko Israel yari yaremeye ubuhungiro bw’abimukira bari musi y’igice kimwe kw’ijana, kuva ishize umukono kw’itegeko rya Onu rigenga impunzi mu myaka mirongo itandatu iheze, ntiyigeze itanga ubuhungiro ku muntu n’umwe ava mu gihugu ca Sudan.

Yarimye ubuhungiro Adam, hanyuma mu kwezi kw’icumi guheze, igihe yari agiye gusubira gusaba uburenganzira mfatakibanza bwo kuba muri ico gihugu, yaciye ajanwa mw’ibohero rizwi kw’izina rya Holot, riri mu bugaragwa bwa Negev.

Ibi ntivyatangaje Adam.

Nk’uko benshi mubanye Sudan n’abanye Eritreans bari muri Israel babizi, n’ikibazo c’umwanya gusa kugira bahamagarwe kuja I Holot.

Reta yita Holot “ ikigo cuguruye co kubamwo”, ariko kirongowe n’abakozi bajejwe amabohero, aho amategeko akaze cane, harimwo n’umukwabu w’ijoro, uramutse uwurenzeko, uca ujanwa ubwo nyene mw’ibohero.

N’ikibanza c’ubwigunge ku buryo uronka ibintu bike ukora, kandi ata hantu na hamwe uronka uja.

Naravuganye na Adam hamwe n’umugwi w’abagenzi biwe, inyuma y’urugi wa Holot, ico gihe, bamara umwanya munini bakina amakarata canke billard, barya bongera bateka mu buzu butobuto bw’uburiro.

Image caption Abimukira mu kigo ca Holot

Bambwiye ko baja imbo mu gufata urugendo rw’isaha yose n’imodoka bagana mu gisagara kiri hagufi ca Beersheva, aho baja kugura izo mfungurwa.

Bavuga ko imfungurwa babaha I Holot zitari zikwiye, kandi ko haba harimwo inyama zike na ndemamubiri(Proteine).

Benshi bari abo bagabo, bari abana, bafise hagati y’imyaka 20 na 30.

Bamwe bahora ari abigisha , abaharanira agateka ka zina muntu canke abanyeshure mu bihugu vyabo.

“Turiko turatakariza ubuto bwacu hano,” uko ni ko Adam yavuze.

Mu gihe umuntu aba I Holot, nta kazoza muba mufise… Usanga abantu benshi ngaha barasaze.”

Kuva ngendeye ikigo ca Holot, utwo tuzu tw’uburiro dutoduto n’ibibanza vyo gukiniramwo, vyose vyarasambuwe kw’itegeko rya reta, risigira abahari uburyo buke bwo kwinezereza.

Image caption Ikigo ca Holot cegereye ibohero rya Saharonim, aho abanse kugenda bapfungirwa ubutakirekurwa.

Adam azomara I Holot amezi 12, hanyuma ahitemwo ibintu bitatu:

 Gutaha muri Sudan  Kuguma muri Israel, ariko agaca apfungwa ubutakirekurwa  Kwemera kuja mu kindi gihugu

Reta ya Israel yaragiriraniye amasezerano n’ibihugu vyo muri Afrika yo kwakira abo bimukira badakeneye ku butaka bwabo.

Yemeye ko abantu bazemera “kuja mu mindi gihugu kugushaka kwabo”, bazoronswa impapuro bagishika muri ivyo bihugu zibemerera kuhaba ata nkomanzi.

Kugira babibakundishe, bahabwa amadollars 3,500, bagihaguruka ku kibuga ca Tel Aviv.

Israel caranse kuvuga ivyo bihugu bibiri vya Afrika, ariko BBC yaravuganye n’abo bimukira, bavuze ko barungikwa mu Rwanda no muri Uganda.

Umwe ni Tesfay, umunye Eritrea yafashe indege aja mu Rwanda mu kwezi kwa gatatu 2015, aca ambwira ko haguhabwa uburenganzira buzwi n’amategako bwo kuba muri ico gihugu, inzu n’akazi mu Rwanda, nk’uko bari babimwemereye muri Israel, yaciye agurishwa.

Impapuro zimuranga, impapuro z’urugendo ziriko uruhusha rwo kwinjira gusa mu Rwanda, vyose vyatangiwe muri Israel, baciye babitwara ku kibuga c’indege ca Kigali, nk’uko abivuga.

Hanyuma, bari kumwe n’abandi banye Eritreans icenda, yaciye ajanwa mu “nzu y’uburaro”, aho ata n’umwe yari arekuriwe gusohoka.

Bari bababwiye ko bashobora kugira ingorane kubera ata bibaranga bafise.

Hanyuma, inyuma y’imisi ibiri, abo bagabo babwiwe ko hageze ko bagenda.

Image caption Tesfay ni we yafashe iyi foto y'inzu y'uburaro mu Rwanda

“Mugiye muri Uganda. Ariko imbere y’uko mugenda, mutegerezwa kuriha amadolars 150,” ivyo vyavuzwe n’umugabo yavuga ko yitwa John.

“Hanyuma kuva ku rubibe uja Kampala, mutegerezwa kuriha kandi”

Barundanye mu modoka yunguruza abantu, bagiye amasaha atandatu baja ku rubibe rwa Uganda, aho baciye bababwira kuva muri iyo modoka.

“Tumaze kujabuka urubibe, ni ho nategera ko tutari mu mategeko,” nk’uko Tesfay yavuze.

“Twabandanije n’amaguru, mu gacerere. Twari abantu badakurikije amategeko, bava mu gihugu baja mu kindi.”

Nk’uko “John” yari yabivuze, vyabaye ngombwa ko bariha ayandi madollard 150 mu kubandanya urwo rugendo rwo kuja ku mugwa mukuru, Kampala.

Ata nkeka, kwinjira nk’abimukira batagira ivyanombwa, baciye bahagarikwa bagishika, bashirwa mu gasho, hanyuma abapolisi babatwara nk’igice c’amahera bari bafise mu mifuko, nk’uko Tesfay abivuga.

Mu duhera duke twari dusigaye, Tesfay yarashoboye kuriha amahera y’ingwati. Yategerezwa kwitaba ubutungane mu misi itanu, kandi yari yagabishijwe ko ashobora gusubizwa mu gihugu ca Eritrea, igihugu c’agacinyizo yari yahunze ubwa mbere, aca afata ingingo yo kutigerezako.

Yaciye ariha uwundi muntu atwara abantu badakurikije amategeko, amujana mu gihugu ca Kenya, aho ubu ariko arasaba ubuhungiro.

Urwanda ntururigera rwemera ko rufitaniye amasezerano na Israel yo kwakira abimukira birukanywe muri ico gihugu.

Reta ya Uganda ku ruhande rwayo, yararahiye yivuye inyuma ko ata masezerano nkayo ahari, ikaba yabwiye BBC ko iriko igira amatohoza kugira ngo imenye uko abimukira bavuga ko baje bavuye mu gihugu ca Israel, binjiye muri ico gihugu.

BBC yaravuganye n’umugabo ava mu ntara ya Darfour yavuze ko yaje muri Uganda n’indege ava muri Israel, ari kumwe n’abandi indwi mu 2014, imbere y’uko iyo politike imenyekana.

Kubera umutekano wiwe, yasavye kutamenyekana.

“Nta kintu na kimwe muvyo bari banyemereye bampaye,” ni ko yavuze.

“Nta rupapuro na rumwe, nta gitabo c’inzira, nta mfashanyo, nta na kimwe,(Israel) ishaka gusa kuja kubajugunya.”

Image caption Uruzitiro rw'intsinga ku rubibe rwa Israel na Misri rwubatswe mu 2013, rubuza abimukira kwinjira muri ico gihugu.

Mu kwezi kw’icumi, abategetsi bajejwe abasohoka n’abinjira bavuze ko abantu 3,000 bahiga ubuhungiro baravuye muri Israel, baja mu bindi bihugu.

Ariko BBC, yaramenye ko idwi gusa ari bo biyandikishije mw’ishirahamwe rifasha impunzi kw’isi mu Rwanda, bose kandi bari abanye Eritrea, umunani gusa , benmshi bava muri Sudan, baja muri Uganda.

Hagati aho, hari abanye Eritrea n’abanye Sudan bashika 45,000 muri Israel. Reta ntizobasubiza iwabo, uko kwoba ari uguhonyanga itegeko rya Onu rigenga abimukira, ico gihugu cashizeko umukono mu 1954.

Muri iryo tegeko, nta muntu n’umwe ashobora gusubizwa mu gihugu ciwe ku nguvu, atinya ko agirirwa nabi.

Ariko n’aho reta ya Israel ibafata nk’impunzi yishimikije iryo tegeko, kubera iki none ibima ubuhungiro?

Umuvugizi w’ubushikiranganji bw’imigenderanire, Emmanuel Nahshon, avuga ko abimukira bageramiye umutekano n’askaranga k’igihugu c’abayahudi.

“Biragaragara ko turi mu bihe bigoye kandi bitoroshe. Kandi wongeyeko iki kintu c’abimukira baza ngaha kandi bashaka kuhaguma, nta nkeka ko ari ukubera iki ari igihugu gitunze kandi giteye imbere, urumva ko bishobora kuzana ingorane y’akaranga kacu aha muri Israel.

“Si ukubera gusa abantu 45,000 canke 50,000 bamaze gushika ngaha, n’ikibazo c’ubutunzi, kuko abo bantu babwira bagenzi babo n’imiryango basigaye muhira ngo@raba aha ni ikibanza ciza. Nimuze.”

Image caption Abimukira mu mabarabara ya Tel Aviv

Hanyuma kandi aha muri Israel, hari ikindi kibazo ubu c’umutekano.

“Kugurura imbibe aho abimukira bashobora guca, bisigura kugurura imbibe aho abitwaje iterabwoba bashobora kumenera muri Israel bagakora igitero c’iterabwoba,” uko ni ko Nahshon yavuze.

Ariko abashingwamanza barwanya politike yo kurungika abimukira mu kindi gihugu muri sentare ntahinyuzwa ya Israel, bavuga koi co gihugu kiriko kirahonyanga ibisabwa n’itegeko rya Onu rigenga impunzi.

“Abimukira bafatwa nk’abacengezi hanyuma, hanyuma bigatuma abasaba ubuhungiro bankirwa bose,” nk’uko bivugwa n’umwe muri abo bashingwamanza, Anat Ben-Dor.

“Hanyuma iciyumviro co kubasaba kwemera ‘kugushaka’ ikintu batazi kubera ari amasezerano yo mu mpisho…. Birumvikana ko uko Atari ugushaka, kuko ukoresha iterabwoba ryo kubapfunga ubutagisohoka mu gihe boramuka banse kugenda.”

Image caption Ibicapo ku kigo ca Holot

“Hanyuma iyo bashitse muri kimwe muri ivyo bihugu bibiri, ukudashobora gukurikirana neza abo bantu, ntibitanga umutekano ukwiye, ko abo bantu batazoshika babura ikibaranga canke mu gasho, canke kibi gusumba vyose, gusubizwa iyo baje bava bahunze aho bashobora kugirirwa nabi.”

Sigal Rozen.wo mw’ishirahamwe riharanira agateka ka zina muntu muri Israel, Hotlne for Refugees and Migrants, aavuga ko kunanirwa kwa Israel gukurikirana umutekano mu Rwanda no muri Uganda bisigura ko birukanwa ku nguvu kugira baje kumerererwa nabi ahandi.

“Bamwe muri bo, baca babandanya muri Sudan y’epfo, abandi muri Kenya, Ethiopia, abandi benshi bahereza urugendo I Buraya, igihe baciye muri Libya na Italy. Hari n’abandi benshi bitabira Imana mu nzira, ntitwigera dusubira kumenya ivyabo kandi,” n’uko yavuze.

Hari igitwengeje mu bimukira, nk’uko abivuga, ko agashimwe reta ya Israel itanga kugira bemere bagende kangana n’amadollars 3500, akwiye kugira bashike I Buraya.

Ariko reta ya Israel ivuga ishimitse ko ibikora ikurikije amategeko mpuzamakungu, kandi ko ifata neza abimukira ata ho yegamiye.

Ariko kuri Tesfay, yararenganijwe.

“Abategetsi ba Israel, ntibakora ivyo bemeye. Nta mutekano mfise, nta kinkingira na kimwe,” uko ni ko yavuze.

Ingorane n’uko Adam hamwe n’abandi baba I Holot bazokorerwa ivyo nyene igihe bazoshikanwa muri Afrika.