Vyinshi utari uzi ku mwaka ufise inyongera!!

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Thinkstock
Image caption Imyaka irimwo inyongera yashinzwe kugirango isaha igume ijana n'ukwiyunguruza kw'isi hamwe n'ibihe

Buri myaka ine, ikirangaminsi dukoresha ciyongerako umunsi umwe mu kwezi kwa kabiri. None imyaka ifise inyongera yaje gute, canke yaje kuba umugenzo kuri benshi gute? Reka twihweze ibintu bitanu bidasanzwe biranga itariki ya 29 z'ukwa kabiri.

Isi biyitwara iminsi 365,2422 kugira izunguruke izuba inshuro imwe.

Hakurikijwe ikirangaminsi kiriho c'abanye Buraya, catanguye gukoreshwa mu kinjana ca 16, vyemejwe ko umwaka ufise iminsi 365. Rero ibice 0,2422 vy'umwaka - canke amasaha atanu, iminota 48 n'amasegonda 46 - bica biteranywa bigwakwiza umunsi umwe ukwira buri myaka ine, kugira isaha igume ijana n'isi hamwe n'ibihe.

Ng'ibi ibintu bitanu bidasazwe vyerekeye umwaka w'inyongera.

1. Ni amakosa y'umwami w'abami

Ku ntwaro ya Julius Caesar mu kinjana ca mbere, imbere y'umuzo wa Yezu Kristu, abahinga mu vy'ikirere bahawe akazi ko kuvugurura ikirangaminsi ca kera c'Abaromani, cari kigizwe n'iminsi 355 y'umwana hamwe n'iminsi y'inyongera 22 buri myaka ibiri.Vyibazwa ko ico kirangaminsi casizwe rwose n'ibihe.

Umwaka w'iminsi 365 waciye ushingwa, hakongerwako umunsi umwe buri myaka mike kugira amasaha yiyongerako aronke aho aja - ni nako umwaka w'inyongera wavutse.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Hulton Archive
Image caption Umwaka urimwo inyongera washinzwe na Julius Caesar mu kinjana ca mbere, imbere y'amavuka ya Yezu Kristu/ Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Ukwezi kwahawe izina ry'umurongozi - July, kwahora kwitwa Quintilis - kwari gufise iminsi 31, mu gihe ukwa munani (August), kwahora kwitwa Sextilis mu kirangaminsi ca kera - kwari gufise iminsi 30 gusa.

Hakurikijwe inyandiko z'incabwenge y'i Paris yitwa Sacobosco mu kinjana ca 13, igihe Augustus yaba umwami w'abami wa mbere w'ubwami bushasha bwa Roma, yashatse ko haba ukwezi kumwitirirwa - ashaka kandi ko ukwo kwezi kwokomera co kimwe n'ukwa Julius Caesar.

Rero ukwa kabiri, kwari gufise iminsi 28 canke 30 ku myaka y'inyongera, kwatakaje umunsi umwe uhabwa ukwa munanu (August) mu rugamba rw'imyaka ifise iminsi y'inyongera.

Hakurikijwe ikirangamisi c'aba Geregoriyano, umwaka ushobora kugaburwa na kane ugashobora kandi kugaburwa n'100 - ariko ntugaburwe n'400, ntufatwa nk'umwaka ufise umunsi w'inyongera. Rero imyaka y'2000 n'i1600 yari ifise iminsi y'inyongera, ariko 1700, 1800 n'1900 ntayo yari ifise. Ivyo bikurikizwa kugira hakosorwe utuntu duto ku kuntu isi izunguruka.

2. Abagore basaba abagabo kwubakana

Imyaka ifise iminsi y'inyongera yamye ijana n'imigenzo itandukanye hamwe n'ivyemerwa bidafise aho bishingiye, bimwe bikaba bifitaniye isano n'ubukwe.

Mu Bugiriki nk'akarorero, bamwe mu bashaka kwubakana baririnda kubikora mu mwaka ufise umunsi w'inyongera ngo kuko vyatera umwaku muri kazoza.

Ariko rero imyaka ifise iminsi y'inyongera isanzwe izwi ko ariyo abagore basabamwo abagabo ngo babarongore.

Uwo mugenzo warakurikijwe cane mu kinjana ca 19 abagore bakaba barahimirizwa gusaba abagabo ngo babarongore bakoresheje amakarata y'intasho, ariko aho uwo mugenzo wazanaye haragoye kumenya neza na neza.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu
Image caption Abagore bo mu kinjana ca 19 bahimirizwa gusaba abagabo kubarongora bakoresheje amakarata y'intasho

Bivugwa ko ari umugenzo watanguye mu kinjana ca gatanu, igihe umubikira wo muri Ireland yitwa St Bridget yidogeye umweranda Patrick ko abagore barindira igihe kirekire kugira abakunzi babo babasabe kubarongora.

Imigani ivuga ko umweranda Patrick yaciye asohora itegeko riha abagore uburenganzira bwo gusaba abagabo kubabira rimwe buri myaka ine.

Iyindi nsiguro y'aho vyoba vyaravuye ni mw'itegeko rya kera ryo muri Ecosse.

Umwamikazi Margaret wa Ecosse bivugwa ko yashizeko itegeko 1288 riha abagore badafise abagabo uburenganzira bwo gusaba kwabirwa mu mwaka ufise umunsi w'inyongera, umugabo yanse agaca acibwa amande. Ariko incabwenge nta na hamwe zigeze zibona iryo tegeko ryanditse.

Bamwe babibona nk'ikimenyetso c'ubwigenge bw'abagore, abandi bakabona ko ahubwo ari akaryo ko gushimangira ku bijejwe abagore.

Mu 1904 umwanditsi Elizabeth Meriwether Gilmer, umwe mu bamenyeshamakuru b'abagore bari bazwi cane ico gihe, yanditse ati: "Inshingano z'umugore mu mwaka ufise umunsi w'inyongera, co kimwe na bwinshi mu bundi burenganzira afise, nta kindi atari akagaye."

3. Amahinduka y'abakozi

Niba uhembwa umushahara umwe buri kwezi, imyaka ifise iminsi y'inyongora ni inkuru mbi kuri wewe.

Mu bisanzwe ukora umunsi w'inyongera umwe udahemberwa, kuko umushahara wawe uguma ari wa wundi ku myaka ifise imisi 366, izwi mu gifaransa nka annees bisextiles.

Ariko hari ikintu kitoroshe gutegera muri ibi, kuko kwihweza ingaruka z'ubutunzi ku mwaka ufise umunsi w'inyongera ntivyoroshe.

Benshi mu bahinga mu gukoresha ibiharuro kw'isi bakoresha ibiharuro bigereranije mu gupima ibijanye n'ubutunzi nka GDP (umwimbi w'igihugu), kugira amezi yose ya kabiri agereranywe.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Touchstone Pictures Walt Disney Studios.
Image caption Hollywood ikina ibijanye n'umwaka urimwo inyongera hamwe na Sandra Bullock ari kumwe na Ryan Reynolds muri film "The Proposal" canke "Gusaba Ubugeni"

Rero ukwezi kwa kabiri gufatwa ko gufise iminsi 28 wongeyeko ica kane c'umunsi buri mwaka, yaba umwaka ufise umunsi w'inyongera canke uwusanzwe.

Ibi vyatumye umwigisha wo mw'ishure ryisumbuye w'i Maryland atanguza ico yise "No Work on Leap Day Revolution" (Amahinduka yo kudakora ku munsi w'inyongera) mu 2008, naho iryo sekeza ryiwe ritagiye mu ngiro.

Ariko kandi hari abavuga ko abakozi bahembwa ku kwezi bishobora gufatwa nk'uko bahembwa ayarenze mu kwa kabiri kuko ukwo kwezi kwama ari kugufi ugereranije n'ayandi.

Mu bisanzwe iciyumviro co kwunganira ivyatakajwe mu butunzi kubera umunsi w'iyongera mu mwaka camyeho kuva kera cane.

Mu bishobora guhindurwa ku kirangaminsi kiriho vyashikirijwe kenshi mu binjana biheze, kimwe mu vyavuzwe cane akaba ari iciswe "World Calendar", yakorewe i New York mu 1930, yari kwimurira 29 z'ukwa kabiri ikaba 31 z'ukwa gatandatu uwo munsi ugaca uba uw'akaruhuko kw'isi yose.

4. Abiharira umunsi w'inyongera hamwe na ba rwiyemezamirimo

Hari abadatwarira hejuru, bazana amahinduka ukwabo, bashaka kwiharira uwo munsi, bakawumara bakorera ugushaka hamwe no gufasha abandi kuri uwo munsi w'inyongera mu mwaka.

Urubuga Easyfundraising.org rugira ruti "gabira umunsi wawe w'inyongera ku bagiraneza", cane cane i Buraya no muri Amerika.

Hari amasekeza yo guhimiriza abantu gutanga imfashanyo, kuja mu bikorwa vyo kurondera imfashanyo yo kurwanya indwara nka cancer muri za kaminuza hamwe n'ibindi.

Ikigamijwe, nk'uko amashirahamwe y'abagiraneza abivuga, n'uko abakoresha bemera guha uwo munsi wa 29 z'ukwa kabiri abakozi babo, kandi udakekeranije, si bose bemera kubikora.

Ababijamwo bakoresha amajambo magufi hashtags kuri Twitter nka #ExtraDay na #LeapDay2016 kugira berekane ivyo bakoze.

Kiretse ubugiraneza, abandi bakoresha uwo munsi w'inyongera mu kurangura ivyo batashoboye kurangura ikindi gihe.

Uno mwaka, ikigo kiranga ubuhinga bwa digital co muri Scotland, Attacat, kiragerageza gushinga ikigo gishasha mu munsi umwe, kandi abakozi baco ntibazomenye ico kigo ico arico gushika baje ku kazi itariki 29 z'ukwa kabiri.

Umuyobozi nshingwabikorwa, yanatanguje ico ciyumviro, Tim Barlow, yagize ati: "Co kimwe na ba rwiyemezamirimo bandi benshi, naragize ivyiyumviro vyinshi vyo gutanguza ikigo mu myaka iheze, ariko ni nk'aho ata mwanya nja ndonka wo kubikora... naciye ngira iciyumviro.

"Kuki tutokoresha umunsi wacu w'inyongera mu gutanguza ikigo c'ubudandaji?"

"Kandi si ikigo covuka uno munsi ngo ejo kibe kitakiriho.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty
Image caption Umunsi w'inyongera ushobora kuba uwo kwitangira abandi kuri bamwe/ Getty Images

"Dushaka gushinga ikigo kizomara igihe kirekire."

5. Isabukuru y'amavuka, rimwe mu myaka ine

Iyo ugeze ku bidasanzwe kuri iki kirangaminsi, imyaka iminsi y'inyongera itera amadidane cane ku bayivukiramwo, n'ukuvuga abavuga itariki 29 z'ukwa kabiri.

Umugiriki yavutse kuri iyo tariki, Dimitrios Michalopoulos, yabariye BBC ati: "Abantu nkatwe duhimbaza isabukuru yacu vy'ukuri rimwe gusa mu myaka ine. Mpora mpimbaza itariki 28 ariko si co kimwe.

"Nkiri umwana vyarantera ingorane cane. Ubu narabimenyereye kandi mbona bitwengeje iyo ndabibwiye abandi."

Amahirwe y'uko ugira isabukuru y'amavuka ku munsi w'inyongera ni make cane, kuko abahinga mu biharuro bavuga ko ari rimwe mu 1.461.

Kuri ubu abantu imiriyoni 4,1 kw'isi nibo bavutse itariki 29 z'ukwa kabiri.

Umukinyi w'ivyese Alex Rocco, umunyabitito John Byrom, Papa Paul III hamwe n'umu raperi Ja Rule ni bamwe muri ba rurangiranwa bavutse itariki 29 z'ukwa kabiri.

Iciza n'uko, abana bose bavuka kuri iyo tariki bagirirwa umunsi mukuru wabo bwite babishatse mu muji wa Anthony, i Texas muri Amerika.

Uwo muji wiyise umurwa mukuru w'isi w'imyaka ifise iminsi y'inyongera, utegura isabukuru y'iminsi ine mu mwaka ufise umunsi w'inyongera, hagatangwa ifunguro ry'isabukuru ku bavutse kuri iyo tariki.