Impamvu ibihugu vyahoze bitwarwa na France biriko vyinjira muri Commonwealth

Aba bari bafashe amabendera y'ibihugu vyabo biri muri Commonwealth mu birori vyo ku musi wahariwe Commonwealth mu kibanza ca Westminster Abbey ku wa 14 Ntwarante (3) 2022, i Londres mu Bwongereza

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Insiguro y'isanamu,

Aba bari bafashe amabendera y'ibihugu vyabo biri muri Commonwealth mu birori vyo ku musi wahariwe Commonwealth mu kibanza ca Westminster Abbey ku wa 14 Ntwarante (3) 2022, i Londres mu Bwongereza

Impamvu ibihugu vyahoze bitwarwa na France biriko vyinjira muri Commonwealth

Inyuma y’aho ibihugu bibiri vya Afrika vyahoze bitwarwa gikoloni n’Ubufaransa vyinjiriye muri  Commonwealth, Paul Melly yihweza ibintu n’ibindi arasigura igitera amero ibihugu birondera kwinjira muri uyu muryango ukoresha ururimi rw’icongereza.

Gabon na Togo vyafashe ingingo yo gukomeza imigenderanire yavyo mu ntumbero yo kuraba ko vyogabanya ukwishigikiza Ubufaransa.  

Vyakiriwe mu muryango watangujwe n’ibihugu vyahoze bitwarwa gikoloni n’Ubwongereza ariko bivamwo birugururira imiryango ibindi.  

Ibi bihugu bibiri vya Afrika bito bikoresha igifaransa ubu bibaye ibigira 55 na 56 vyinjiye muri iri shirahamwe. 

U Rwanda rwinjiye mu 2009 mu gihe Mozambique yari yinjiye mu 1995. Ibi bihugu bibiri nta migenderanire idasanzwe vyigeze bigiranira n’Ubwongereza muri kahise.  

Kubona vyafashe ingingo yo kwinjira mw’ishirahamwe Commonwealth vyerekana ko ari umuryango ngirakamaro mu bijanye n’imigenderanire n’akaranga, n'"ubutegetsi bwiyoroheje" (soft power) ku rubuga mpuzamakungu.

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Insiguro y'isanamu,

Umushikiranganji wa mbere w'Ubwongereza Boris Johnson yamaze imisi itatu mu Rwanda mw'ikoraniro rya Commonwealth riheruka

Vyerekana kandi uruhara rw’icongereza nk’ururimi rw’ubudandaji, ubuhinga na poritike mpuzamakungu, n’akamaro ko kwubaka ubucuti n’ibihugu bitandukanye mu ntumbero yo gutsimbataza iterambere no kugira ngo ijwi ryavyo ryumvikane mu bijanye n’imigenderanire.  

Kuri Gabon na Togo, u Rwanda ruratera intege: inyuma y’imyaka 13 gusa rwinjiye, rwashoboye kwakira ikoraniro ry’iri shirahamwe, ryitabiriwe n’abakuru b’ibihugu n’amareta bavuye mu mpande zose z’isi, n’aho hari abatashoboye kuhashika, harimwo Perezida Cyril Ramaphosa  wa Africa y’Epfo.

 

  Akamo ku rwaruka

Ukwinjira kwa  Gabon na Togo muri Commonwealth kuje kandi mu gihe imigenderanire hagati ya Afrika n’Ubufaransa igenda itosekara. 

Igitigiri kitari gito c’abanyagihugu bakiri bato baba mu bisagara basaba abategetsi b’ibihugu vyabo guhagarika ikoreshwa ry’ifaranga rya CFA ryihetse kw’ifaranga rya Bulaya, euro, nk’uko biri mu masezerano ahagarariwe na reta i Paris.  

Ikibazo c’ingabo z’Ubufaransa kandi muri Sahel ntikibonwa kumwe.  

Rero biboneka ko abenshi mu rwaruka rwa Togo na Gabon bashobora kwakiriza yompi ingingo yo kwinjira muri iri shirahamwe rinini kw’isi rikoresha icongereza.

Ibi bifasha kunagura isura y’ubutegetsi bw’ibi bihugu bibiri vyaboneka ko mu kiringo c’imyaka itari mike, bwaboneka nk’ikimenyetso kidasanzwe c’imigenderanire kama ya hafi cane hagati y’abategetsi ba Afrika n’Ubufaransa – mu ciswe "la  françafrique". 

Harigeze kuba igihe aho ingingo nk’iyi yashobora gutera umwikomo mu bategetsi ba Paris batinya ko ikibanza bafise mu karere ko musi y’ubugaragwa bwa Sahara gishobora gutakara. Ariko ubu ubutegetsi bw’Ubufaransa bugenda bworosha.

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Insiguro y'isanamu,

I Libreville muri Gabon mu 1995, umukuru w'igihugu w'Ubufaransa ico gihe Jacques Chirac ari mu rugendo muri Gabon, i buryo bwiwe, Perezida wa Gabon ico gihe, Omar Bongo

Imvo nkizi nyene zo kwagura ubucuti no kugira imigenderanire n’ibihugu bishasha zatumye iri shirahamwe rigenzi rya Commonwealth rikoresha igifaransa ryaguka, hakavuka icitwa Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), twosigura mu kirundi tuti “Ishirahamwe mpuzamakungu ry’ibihugu bikoresha igifaransa”. 

Ubu rigizwe n’ibihugu n’amareta 88 – harimwo u Rwanda,  aho mbere n’uwahoze ari umushikiranganji w’imigenderanire warwo, Louise Mushikiwabo, ari we Munyamabanga mukuru waryo muri kino gihe. Ibiro vyaryo mu karere ka Afrika y’Uburengero n’iyo hagati bikaba biri muri Togo na Gabon, kandi naryo nyene ririko riraguka.   

Mu kwa gatatu umushikiranganji w’imigenderanire wa Ghana Shirley Ayorkor Botchwey yatangaje ko igihugu ciwe, naco cahoze gitwarwa gikoloni n’Ubwongereza kikaba kandi cari umunywanyi w’iri shirahamwe OIF nk’indorerezi kuva mu 2006, cari kigiye kuba umunywanyi yuzuye w’iri shirahamwe. 

Ghana, nk’igihugu gifise inzego za demokarasi zikomeye n’ubutunzi bukomeye, kizoba ari kimwe mu gitigiri kigenda ciyongera c’ibihugu biri muri ano mashirahamwe yompi ya Commonwealth na Francophonie – ku mvo zo gukomeza imigenderanire. 

Ibihugu bibanyi vyayo hafi vyose muri Afrika y’Uburengero bikoresha igifaransa mbere reta igenda ifata ingendo yo kwigisha urwaruka rwayo kugira ngo bungukire muri iyi nyubako y’ubutunzi, imico na poritike – nk’akarorero ubu hari amashure 50 yigisha muri izi ndimi zompi. 

Hanyuma kandi nta kwibagira n’irindi shirahamwe rito rigenda rikomera kandi rigifise ikibanza, ishirahamwe ry’ibihugu bikoresha ururimi rw’igi Portugal, rizwi nka Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) - ibihugu biri muri iri shirahamwe hafi vyose ni ivya Afrika.

Igipimo kuri demokarasi

Ariko aya mashirahamwe yose atatu - CPLP, Francophonie na Commonwealth – ahanganye n’ikibazo ngorabahizi c’ugukomeza intwaro ibereye, intwaro rusangi n’agateka ka zina muntu – ikibazo gihanze Ubumwe bwa Afrika n’amashirahamwe amwe amwe ahuza uturere twa Afrika, cane cane nka Communauté économique des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest/Economic Community of West African States (CEDEAO/ECOWAS). 

Amashirahamwe yompi, Commonwealth na OIF, ararungika abahinga gufasha ibihugu gutsimbataza integuro zavyo z’amatora, ariko iyo hageze ku bijanye n’ibisabwa kugira ngo igihugu kanaka cakirwe, basa n’abugururira bose imiryango, bakitaho gusa guhimiriza buke buke hagufata umurongo ugumye.  

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Insiguro y'isanamu,

Togo iherutse guhangana n'imyiyerekano yasaba impinduka muri poritike

Togo yarongowe n’umukuru w’igihugu yamenyekanye cane ko yatwaza umukazo, Gnassingbé Eyadéma, kuva mu 1967 gushika 2005, kandi kuva ico gihe gushika ubu irongowe n’umuhungu wiwe, Faure Gnassingbé.  

Umukuru w’igihugu ca Gabon, Ali Ben Bongo Ondimba, ni umuhungu wa Omar Bongo, yarongoye ico gihugu kuva 1967 gushika 2009, akaba yarinjiye no mu gihuhusi c’imigambwe myinshi mu myaka ya 1990, ariko yagiye yinengesera kugira ngo umugambwe wiwe ubandanye ari wo uri hejuru, kandi umuryango wiwe na wo nyene ubandanye ufise uruhara muri reta.

Imbere y’uko asubirira se wiwe mu kibanza c’umukuru w’igihugu, Ali Bongo yari umushikiranganji wo kwivuna abansi.  

Itangazo ryasohowe na Commonwealth ritangaza iyinjira rya Togo na Gabon ryavuga riti: "Muri vyinshi bisabwa kugira ngo igihugu cinjire muri Commonwealth, harimwo ikivuga ko igihugu gisaba kwinjira gitegerezwa kwerekana ko ciyemeje gutsimbataza intwaro rusangi kandi kikagendera mu nzira za demokarasi, harimwo amatora meza kandi yisanzuye be n’inzego nshingamateka”. 

Ariko Perezida Paul Kagame w’u Rwanda, n’aho ata nkeka ko mu makungu akengurukwa  kubera iterambere yazanye mu gihugu ciwe mu bijanye n’ubutunzi n’imibano, amashirahamwe aharanira agateka ka zina muntu amwagiriza ko atwaza agahotoro. Abamunegura bavuga ko abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi bwiwe batotezwa kandi bagashirwa ku ruhande.  

Perezida Kagame avuga ko ubutegetsi bwiwe bwubahiriza uburenganzira bwa kiremwa muntu, kandi ko ata “muntu n’umwe mu Rwanda ari mw’ibohero atategerezwa kuba ari yo ari”.  

Kuri Gabon, amatora y’umukuru w’igihugu ategekanijwe mu mwaka uza azoba ari igipimo c’intwaro ibereye.  

Ariko kuri Togo hoho, igipimo gisa n’ikitatevye. Ku musi nyene Commonwealth itangaza ibi, abategetsi baciye babuza imyiyerekano yari itegekanijwe n’umuhari utavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi, Dynamique Monseigneur Kpodzro (DMK), mu ntumbero yo kwiyamiriza ubuzima buzimvye, hamwe n’ico wita intwaro mbi n’akarenganyo.  

DMK yaciye yungururiza iyi myiyerekano ku wa 16 z’ukw’indwi. Kazoba ari akaryo keza ko kuraba nimba muri Togo reta izoba yiteguye kwiyorosha, nk’umunywanyi mushasha wa Commonwealth.

Paul Melly ni umuhanuzi mu gisata ca Afrika mu kigo Chatham House i Londres.