# Ukuntu uruzige rumwe ruhinduka ikiza

Umugwi munini w'inzige zo mu bugaragwa ziragisibije mu karere k'ihembe rya Afrika no mu bumanuko bwa Aziya, zirya imirima kandi zibangamira amasoko y'ibifungurwa n'uburamuko bw'abantu. Nico kiza kibi kibonetse mu kiringo kingana ica kane c'ikinjana. None vyashitse aha gute?

Uruzige rwo mu bugaragwa nk'uru - ubwoko bw'igihori - mu bisanzwe ntirukunda kwiyerekana, kandi ni nyamwigendako. Rutangura ari igi rikavamwo akazige gato - kazwi nka hopper - hanyuma kagahinduka uruzige rukuze ruguruka. Ni ubuzima busanzwe, ata gitangaza kirimwo.

Ariko rimwe na rimwe, inzige zo mu bugaragwa zishikirwa n'amahinduka azwi nka Jekyll and Hyde. Aho n'igihe zirundaniriza hamwe - nk'ahantu hari ubwatsi buriko burahera - zikareka kuba nyamwigendako zigacika udusigo duto kandi "dukaze".

Muri uyu muce mushasha w'ukubana, utu dukoko duhindura ibara kandi tukishira mu migwi ishobora guhindukamwo imgwi minini y'inzige ziguruka zikona imirima ku buryo buteye ubwoba.

Imigwi nk'iyi y'inzige irashobora kuba amahanga yose. Irashobora kuba irimwo inzige imiriyaridi 10 kandi zigakwiragira akarere k'ibirometero amajana. Zirashobora kugenda ahantu hangana 200km mu munsi umwe, zigatongora ibiterwa aho ziciye ata kuruhuka, zirya zongera zirondoka.

N'umugwi usanzwe w'inzige urashobora gusambura umurima wogaburiye abantu 2.500 umwaka wose, nk'uko bitangazwa n'ikigo kijejwe ibivungurwa kw'isi PAM.

Ikiza gikomeye c'inzige caheruka mu 2003-05 mu burengero bwa Afrika cateje igihombo c'ibifungurwa c'agaciro k'imiriyaridi \$2.5, nk'uko bitangazwa na ONU.

Ariko harigeze kuba ibiza bikomeye vyahitanye vyinshi mu myaka y'1930, 40 na 50. Bimwe muri ivyo biza vyarashitse mu turere twinshi, bishika ku bitigiri bikenewe kugira bifatwe nk'"akaranda".

Muri rusangi, PAM igereranya yuko inzige zo mu bugaragwa zibangamira amaramuko y'umwe kuri 10 mu bantu baba kw'isi - akaba ari kiza ca mbere gikomeye kw'isi giterwa n'ibikoko vyimuka.

Uruzige rwo mu bugaragwa nk'uru - ubwoko bw'igihori - mu bisanzwe ntirukunda kwiyerekana, kandi ni nyamwigendako. Rutangura ari igi rikavamwo akazige gato - kazwi nka hopper - hanyuma kagahinduka uruzige rukuze ruguruka. Ni ubuzima busanzwe, ata gitangaza kirimwo.

Ariko rimwe na rimwe, inzige zo mu bugaragwa zishikirwa n'amahinduka azwi nka Jekyll and Hyde. Aho n'igihe zirundaniriza hamwe - nk'ahantu hari ubwatsi buriko burahera - zikareka kuba nyamwigendako zigacika udusigo duto kandi "dukaze".

Muri uyu muce mushasha w'ukubana, utu dukoko duhindura ibara kandi tukishira mu migwi ishobora guhindukamwo imgwi minini y'inzige ziguruka zikona imirima ku buryo buteye ubwoba.

Imigwi nk'iyi y'inzige irashobora kuba amahanga yose. Irashobora kuba irimwo inzige imiriyaridi 10 kandi zigakwiragira akarere k'ibirometero amajana. Zirashobora kugenda ahantu hangana 200km mu munsi umwe, zigatongora ibiterwa aho ziciye ata kuruhuka, zirya zongera zirondoka.

N'umugwi usanzwe w'inzige urashobora gusambura umurima wogaburiye abantu 2.500 umwaka wose, nk'uko bitangazwa n'ikigo kijejwe ibivungurwa kw'isi PAM.

Ikiza gikomeye c'inzige caheruka mu 2003-05 mu burengero bwa Afrika cateje igihombo c'ibifungurwa c'agaciro k'imiriyaridi \$2.5, nk'uko bitangazwa na ONU.

Ariko harigeze kuba ibiza bikomeye vyahitanye vyinshi mu myaka y'1930, 40 na 50. Bimwe muri ivyo biza vyarashitse mu turere twinshi, bishika ku bitigiri bikenewe kugira bifatwe nk'"akaranda".

Muri rusangi, PAM igereranya yuko inzige zo mu bugaragwa zibangamira amaramuko y'umwe kuri 10 mu bantu baba kw'isi - akaba ari kiza ca mbere gikomeye kw'isi giterwa n'ibikoko vyimuka.

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## Imigwi amahanga iriko irasivya imirima mu buseruko bwa Afrika no muri Pakistani

Igitero gikomeye c'inzige zo mu bugaragwa caheruka kera cane gishegeshe imirima n'ubwatsi hose mu karere k'ihembe rya Afrika, bikabangamira kuboneka kw'ibifungurwa mu karere kose.

Utu dukoko tw'utwononyi ubu turiko turakwiragira muri Kenya nyuma yo gusiga akaga muri Somaliya na Etiyopiya. Ni co gitero c'inzige gikomeye muri Kenya mu myaka 70 kikaba ari co gikomeye muri Somaliya na Etiyopiya mu myaka 25.

Somaliya yatangaje ibihe bidasanzwe mu gihugu cose kubera iki kibazo. Nico gihugu ca kabiri cabikoze nyuma ya Pakistani, aho utwo dukoko twahoneje ipampa, ingano, ibigori hamwe n'ibindi biterwa mu turere tw'uburengero.

Ariko akarere k'ihembe rya Afrika ni ko gateye cane impungenge, PAM ikavuga ko, mu gihe izi nzige ziriko zirarondoka vuba cane igitigiri cazo gishobora kwigwiza n'500 gushika mu kwezi kwa gatandatu.

### Hari ibihugu vyameze magabo kubera inzige

Bitangwa na: FAO, ukwa kabiri 2020

Hari imigwi imwe y'inzige yambutse urubibe ija muri Uganda kuwa Mungu nk'uko bitangazwa n'abajejwe intwaro, kandi PAM yagabishije ko ukwiyongera gushobora guhindukamwo akaranda nihatagira igikorwa.

Utu dukoko turamaze gusambura isi ndimwa irenga acres 175.000 muri Somaliya na Etiyopiya gushika mu mpera z'ukwezi kwa cumi na kabiri.

Izi zinge zirya amatoni y'ivyatsi umuriyoni 1,8 ku munsi mu kibanza kingana na kirometero kwadarato 135, nk'uko PAM ivuga.

Iryo shirahamwe ryemeza ko umugwi umwe muri Kenya wari upfyukiriye ahantu hafise ubwaguke bwa 40km kuri 60km.

### Uruzige rushobora kurya ibingana gute?

Uruzige rwo mu bugaragwa rukuze rurashobora kurya ibingana n'uburemere bwarwo ku munsi, ni kuvuga 2g. Bitangwa na: PAM

Abajejwe intwaro mu karere bafise ubwoba bw'uko iki kibazo c'inzige gishobora gutuma umwimbu w'ibirimwa ugabanuka, bikabangamira kuboneka kw'ibifungurwa mu karere gasanzwe kabangamiwe n'ingaruka z'imyuzure n'uruzuba. Abantu barenga imiriyoni 20 mu karere barashobora kubangamirwa, nk'uko ONU ivuga.

Keith Cressman, uwujejwe kurereka inzige muri PAM, agira ati: "Turajwe ishinga cane na Kenya hamwe na Etiyopiya kuko ni vyo bibanza birimwo imigwi y'inzige minini cane".

"Vyongeye, muri Etiyopia, inzige ziriko zirarondokerayo, bigasigura ko igitigiri cazo ciyongera."

Ali Bila Waqo, umurimyi w'imyaka 68 y'amavuko akorera mu buraruko bushira ubuseruko bwa Kenya, yari yizeye kuzoronka umwimbu mwiza uno mwaka, kuko imvura yari yabonetse nyuma y'igihe kirekire c'uruzuba.

Ariko inzige zaronye ziratongora umurima wiwe wose w'ibigori n'ibiharage.

Agira ati "zariye ivyari vyameze vyose kandi ivyo zitariye vyaciye vyuma. Vyaratubabaje cane. Twarabona ivyo kurya n'amaso yacu, ariko ntitwigeze dukirako."

Bwana Waqo, aribuka neza igitero c'inzige caheruka mu 1960, akavuga ingene izo nzige zakubise ikirere kikijima.

Agira ati "harijima ku buryo udashora no kubona izuba."

## Ikirere kibi catumye ikibazo cunyuka.

Icateje igitero c'inzige c'ubu cahereye ku gihe c'ibihuhusi n'imvura nyinshi vyo mu 2018-19.

Inzige zo mu bugaragwa mu bisanzwe ziba mu karere kumye kari nko ku bihugu 30 hagati ya Afrika y'uburengero n'Ubuhinde - akarere k'ubunini bungana n'ibirometero kwadarato imiriyoni 16.

Ariko imvura yaguye mu myaka ibiri iheze yatumye mu bumanuko bw'amazinga y'Abarabu haba heza bituma inganwe zitatu z'inzige zigwira atawuzibonye, nk'uko bivugwa na ONU.

### Kwiyongera kwantanguye kuva mu 2018

Bingwa na: PAM, ukwa mbere 2020

Gushika mu ntango za 2019, imigwi ya mbere y'inzige yerekeje muri Yemen, Arabi Saudite na Irani, zirarondoka cane imbere yo kwungururiza muri Afrika.

Iyindi migwi yaravutse kandi gushika mu mpera z'umwaka uheze zari zagwiriye muri Eritreya, Jibuti na Kenya.

Imigwi y'inzige kandi iriko iragwirirana ku kiyaga gitukura, bigakora kuri Misiri, Sudani, Arabi Saudite na Yemen, hamwe no ku rubibe rw'Ubuhinde na Pakistani - ibintu ONU ivuga ko "biteye impugenge cane".

Naho ibitero vy'inzige nk'ivyo bigoye cane kurwanya kuko zikwiragira akarere kanini cane, Bwana Cressman wo muri PAM yemera ko hari vyinshi vyari gushobora gukorwa kare mu guhangana n'iki kibazo co kwiyongera kw'inzige.

Yagize ati "Iyo haba utwigoro twinshi kandi dushika ku kintu mu guhangana n'ikibazo mu bihugu bimwe, vyari gutuma ibintu bitunyuka."

## Abantu bariko baragerageza guhangana n'iki kiza c'inzige

Mu gihe ikiza c'inzige kiri mu karere k'ihembe rya Afrika ari akataraboneka mu vyerekeye ingene izo nzige zingana n'ivyo ziri kwonona, ibihugu biriko birakora uko bishoboye.

Gukumira iki kiza bikunda ari uko ibintu bibiri bibonetse - kurereka no kugenzura bikwiye.

Urwego rwa PAM rutanga amakuru ku nzige zo mu bugaragwa rutanga imburi, kikagabisha kare kandi kikavuga igihe, ubunini hamwe n'akarere igitero c'inzige gishobora kubamwo n'ukurondoka kwazo.

Ariko iyo igitigiri c'inzige kimaze gushika ku rwego runini cane, nk'uko bimeze mu karere k'ihembe rya Afrika, hakenewe gufatwa ivyemezo vya vuba vyo kugabanya ubwinshi bw'inzige, co kimwe no gukumira ngo iyindi migwi yazo ntivuke ikagwirirana.

### Ingene imigwi y'inzige irwanywa

Bitangwa na: PAM

Bwana Cressman agira ati "ubu hakenewe kugenzura uturere tunini hakoreshejwe indege muri Kenya na Etiyopiya - kandi vyoba vyiza binakozwe muri Somaliya, ariko ibi ntibishoboka kubera umutekano."

"Mu gihe inzige ubu zigizwe n'imigwi y'izikuze, vyoba vyiza zigabweko ibitero bikomeye n'indege kugira tugabanye igitigiri c'izobandanya gukura zigata amagi."

Naho ubushakashatsi bubandanya kugira hatorwe umuti utabangamira ibidukikije, nk'imiti ikozwe mu biterwa canke kuzana ibikoko birya inzige, uburyo bukoreshwa kenshi mu kuzikumira ni imiti y'ubumara.

Hatewe imiti muri izo nzige n'abagenda n'amaguru, imiduga canke indege, imigwi yose y'inzige irashobora gutumberezwa kandi ikicwa n'ubumara mu mwanya muto.

Utwigoro two guhangana n'igitero c'inzige twariyongereye muri Kenya mu gukoresha indege zipoma imiti, ariko gukumira inzige nyishi uku ziri mu karere kanini cane, akarere kagoye gushikamwo, kiracari ikibazo kitoroshe kubera uburyo.

Bigoye cane cane mu bihugu n'uturere aho bamaze imyaka myinshi badahura n'ikibazo c'inzige, kuko ata nyubako zisanzweho zo kwifashisha canke ngo babe bibuka uko bikorwa.

Bwana Cressman agira ati "birashobora gutera ubwoba cane iyo igitero c'inzige kigarutse."

Ivyakozwe muri Somaliya, Etiyopiya na Kenya - co kimwe no muri Pakistani - bizokwerekana igikenewe gukorwa mu bihe biri imbere. Ukwiyongera kuriho ubu nikwambuka izindi mbibe, izindi ntara zigashikirwa, iyindi mirima ikonwa, harashobora gutangazwa "akaranda".

ONU ivuga ko kupoma bibera ku butaka no mu kirere mu karere kuri ubu "ntibikwiye" ikaba yasavye amakungu guterera imiriyoni \$70 vyihutirwa yo gufasha guhangana n'iki kibazo.

Ariko ku murimyi wo muri Kenya Ali Bila Waqo n'umuryango wiwe, icokorwa ico ari co cose ubu nta kamara kuko amazi yarenze inkombe. Ikintu conyene bashobora gukora mu kurwanya izi nzige iyo zamanuka kwari guhonda ku mabido no kuvuza induru.

Ariko naho biri uko, ivyamubayeho asa n'uwavyakiriye.

Agira ati "Ni ugushaka kw'Imana. Iki ni igisirikare cayo."

## Ababiteguye

Words and production by Lucy Rodgers, field production by Joe Inwood, design by Zoe Bartholomew and Millie Wachira, development by Becky Rush, Catriona Morrison and Purity Birir. Locust images by Swidbert R Ott and Stephen Rogers and Getty Images. Kenya farming images by the BBC.