# Black Hole: Abin da 'ya fi duniyoyi girma' a samaniya

Wannan makala wani marubuci Aliyu Dahiru Aliyu ne ya rubuta mana

A ranar 10 ga watan Afrilun 2019 aka bayyana hoto na farko a tarihin duniya da yake dauke da "black hole".

Da harshen Hausa, cikin fassara mara 'yanci, zamu iya kiran "Black Hole" da "bakin rami".

Amma wasu masu fassarar sun kirashi da sunan "mutuwaren taurari" wato inda taurari ke tafiya bayan wa'adin rayuwarsu ya cika.

Gidajen labarai da jaridu sun ta bayyana wannan hoto a matsayin babban ci gaba da aka samu da zai iya amsa wasu manya-manyan tambayoyi a Kimiyya kuma su hade dokokin dabi'a (natural laws) da aka kasa hadewa tsawon tarihi, tsakanin tsarin babban masanin kimiyyar fiziks na dauri (classical physics) wato Issac Newton (Newtonian Mechanics).

Kuma wanda aka binciko a karni na 20 da taimakon Heisenberg da Schrodinger wato "Quantum Mechanics".

## To amma ko mene ne "black hole"?

Ta yaya shi wannan bakin rami ko mutuwaren taurari ya zama mai muhimmancin gaske a kimiyya?

A shekarar 1939 wannan babban masanin Kimiyyar wato Albert Einstein da kuma nazariyyarsa ta "General theory of relativity" ya rubuta cewa babu yadda maganadisun janyowa (gravity) zai iya janyo taurari saboda akwai iya matakin da wasu abubuwan ba za su matsu ba.

Yana nufin cewa babu ta yadda tauraro mai tsananin nauyi zai iya faduwa saboda ya fi karfin "gravity" ya yi tasarrufi da shi.

Masana Kimiyya duk sun yarda da Einstein har sai da wani masanin Kimiyya dan asalin Amurika wato John Wheeler ya bayyana cewa kuskure ne.

Ya fadi cewa akwai wani guri da a yanzu ake kira "black hole" da yake janyo irin wadannan taurari cikinsa. Wannan tauraro da yake fadawa wannan guri shi aka fara kira da "frozen star" (daskararren tauraro).

Bakin rami (black hole) yana da abubuwan al'ajabi masu dimbin yawa da yasa har littafi aka yi a kansa. Stephen Hawking ya karar da rayuwarsa wajen karantar da binciken kimiyyarsa akan "black hole".

Ya rubuta littafi mai suna "Black Holes and Baby Universes" sannan kuma ya gabatar da lacca da BBC ta shirya da sunan "Black Holes".

Kafinsa, Richard Feynman ya yi bayani na sosai akan wannan abin al'ajabi da dokokinsa suka sabawa sauran dokokin dabi'a.

Wani lokacin dokokin dabi'a sukan sabawa tunaninmu, musamman idan da zam kalli irin wadanda suke faruwa a wannan "black hole" din ko kuma kimiyyar mitsi-mitsin abubuwan da suke cikin kwayar zarra (Quantum Physics).

Dama dai dokokin dabi'a sun rabu gida biyu, tsakanin na manyan abubuwa (Newtonian mechanics) da kuma na mitsi-mitsin abubuwa (Quantum mechanics).

A "black hole" akan samu tarayyar wadannan dokoki ne guri guda, don haka ake zaton tun da an kasa hade wadannan dokoki to idan aka fahimci "black hole" to za a iya hadesu.

Wannan shi ne abin da Stephen Hawking ya karar da rayuwarsa akai amma har ya mutu a shekarar da ta gabata bai samu nasara ba!

Stephen Hawking yana cewa mafi kankantar "black hole" yana da nauyin babban tsaunin dutse a wannan duniya tamu.

Amma an fi samun manyan da suka ninninka rana nauyi. Kada ka manta rana ta ninka wannan duniyar da muke kai nauyi ninkin-ba-ninkin. Hoton "black hole" din da aka dauko a yau ya yi nauyin rana sau sama da biliyan shida!

Kenan ya ninka wannan duniyar da muke kai nauyi sama da malala gashin tinkiya! Duk abin da yazo wucewa ta kusa da "black hole", ta wani guri da ake kira da "event horizon" to sai ya zukoshi ya hadiyeshi saboda karfin janyowar da "gravity" yake da shi a gurin.

Babu mutumin da ya taba kusantar inda "black hole" yake amma da wani zai je gurin da sai ta hadiyeshi irin hadiyar da injin taliya yake yiwa fulawa.

Irin wannan mummurdewa da zaka yi shi ake kira da "spaghettification", daga kalmar taliya ta "spaghetti".

Masu kimiyya sun ce sararin subhana (space) na da kusurwoyi guda 12 (12-dimensions) amma idanunmu hudu suke iya gani (tsawo, fadi, giccewa da guri-lokaci). Da farko ma uku ake gani kafin zuwan Albert Einstein ya hasaso cikon dayan (space-time).

To a "black hole" duka goma sha biyun suna nan.

Podcast

Shiri na musamman da sashen Hausa na BBC zai dinga kawo muku kan cutar Coronavirus

Kashi-kashi

End of Podcast

Don haka Richard Feynman, wanda ya yi bincike akan me zai faru da zamu iya fadawa cikin "black hole" kuma bamu mutu ba, ya ce idan ka fada cikin "black hole" to wata duniyar (universe) din za ka fada mai wata irin dokar ta dabi'a daban!

Watakila tarihi ya canja baki daya idan ka fada ka ganka a wata nahiyar mai wasu irin halittu na daban, watakila masu mutuwa a dawo! Wannan zai faru ne idan wannan tunanin na cewa duniyoyi suna da yawa a kimiyya (multiple universe theorem) ya tabbata.

Da yake kuma duk abin da ya fada cikin "black hole" ba a jin tarihinsa baki daya kuma dokokin dabi'a sun kasa haduwa a kusa da shi, wannan ya sanya hasashen mai zai faru da duniya a nan gaba ya zama abin da yake damun masana kimiyya.

Da yake duk abin da ya fada "black hole" to ko alamarsa ba a kara ji domin yana rasa duk wani bayani da yake tattare da shi ta hanyar wani yanayi da suka kira "information loss."

Kuma ga shi duk abin da aka harba ya kusanci "black hole" to tasa ta kare, wannan ta sanya komai na Kimiyya yake rikicewa da an zo gun.

To amma yanzu tun da har an iya dauko hotonsa ana tsammanin wannan wata 'yar karamar dama ce da aka samu ta cewa za a iya nazartar cikin "black hole" din a nan gaba domin a ajiye duk wani hasashe a dauki hakika.

Sanin hakikarsa kuwa zai iya taimakawa domin mu iya gano tushen yadda duniya (universe) ta samu ta abin da ake kira da babbar fashewa (Big-Bang) da kuma ina ne makomarta ta yanayin da aka kira "Big Crunch" da harshen Ingilishi.

Idan har an iya gano hakikar "black hole", wani abu mai kamar wuya wai gurguwa da auren nesa, to zamu iya gane ya Allah ya yi ya halicci duniya (universe) daga wani abu da ake kira matattara dayantaka (singularity).

Kuma ya zata kasance idan an zo tashin duniyar baki daya! Kai har hasashen shekara nawa ya ragewa duniya kafin ta bindige baki daya zamu iya yi.

Wani zai iya cewa ta yaya aka dauko hoton "black hole" tare da cewa an bayyana cewa yana da nisan dubunnan mila-milan tafiya na gudun haske?!

Gudun haske na dakika (second) daya kuwa dai-dai yake da gudun da zaka iya yi ka zagaye duniya sau bakwai a cikin dakika daya!

To amma abin da ba a gane ba shi ne, har wadannan taurarin da muke gani ba su ne asalin taurari ba. Taurarin da suke da rai sun yi mana nisa sosai da ba zamu iya ganinsu ba.

Wadannan hasken taurarin da suka fashe suka mutu ne tun tale-tale a shekaru dubbataiya da ta gabata! Haka shi ma "black hole" din da aka dauko duhu da hasken gefensa ne na shekaru masu miliyoyin yawa da ya kusantomu ba wai gurinsa aka je aka dauko hoton ba.

Duk abin da yazo wucewa ta gurin asalin "black hole" to tasa kuma ta kare domin shigewa ciki zai yi kuma ba zamu sake samun labarinsa ba.