Abubuwa 12 bayan wata 12 da juyin-juya halin Sudan

Bikin zagayowar ranar da aka fara boren da ya kawo karshen mulkin Omar al Bashir Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Bikin zagayowar ranar da aka fara bore a birnin Atbara na Sudan

Shekara daya da ta gabata tarzoma ta barke a birnin Atbara na Sudan bayan da matsin tattalin arziki ya sa 'yan kasar suka sauya al'amura da kansu.

Wata hudu bayan barkewar rikici a garin na Atbara, turjiyar da masu zanga-zangar suka nuna ta kai ga hambare gwamnatin Shugaba Omar Al-Bashir.

Mulkin shugaban na kusan shekara 30 ya janyo yake-yake da zalunci da matsalolin tattalin arziki ga al'ummomin kasar.

An sake kwashe wasu watani hudu inda a lokacin aka yi asarar rayuka masu yawa kafin a kafa gwamnatin rikon kwarya, bayan wasu jerin tattaunawa da aka yi tsakanin banagren masu zanga-zangar da sojojin da ke mulkin kasar.

BBC ta duba abubuwa 12 mafiya jan hankali da suka faru a cikin wata 12 na juyin-juya halin Sudan.

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Image caption Hauhawar farashin burodi ne ya tunzura mutanen Sudan har suka yi bore

1. 'Yan Sudan sun bijire wa hukuma

Ranar 19 ga watan Disambar 2018, masu zanga-zanga suka bayyana a kan titunan garin Atbara da ke arewa da Khartoum, babban birnin kasar.

Wannan matakin ya kasance sakamako ne ga nunka farashin burodi har sau uku da gwamnati ta yi cikin kwana guda.

Matakin na gwamnatin Sudan na kara farashin kayan masarufi ya biyo bayan janye tallafin da gwamnati kasar ta dade tana yi, wanda kuma Asusun Bayar da Lamuni na Duniya IMF, ya bukaci ta yi idan tana son karbar tallafin na tattalin arziki.

Akwai kuma batun hauhawar farashin kayayyaki da karyewar darajar takardar kudin kasar wadda aka fi sani da sunan Jinai.

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Image caption Omar al Bashir

Ba a jima ba boren ya bazu zuwa wasu sassan kasar har ta kai ga masu zanga-zangar sun fara neman Omar al Bashir ya sauka daga mukaminsa na shugaban kasa.

2. Shelar Bukatar 'Yanci da Sauyi'

Bayan da masu boren suka fito fili suna suna bukatar Shugaba al Bashir ya sauka daga mukaminsa, sai kungiyoyi masu adawa da mulkinsa suka hade wuri guda, kuma suka rattaba hannu kan wata takarda da ta bayyana bukatunsu na wanzar da 'yanci da kawo sauyi a fagen siyasar kasar.

Abin da ya bambanta wanan hadakar da ire-irenta na shekarun baya, shi ne akwai kungiyoyi na ma'aikata da na mata da 'yan kwadago da kuma malaman makaranta da suka dade suna fushi da salon mulkin da ake yi masu wanda suka ce na danniya da zalunci ne, kuma wanda cin hanci da rashawa yayi wa katutu.

Wata kungiya mai suna Sudanese Professionals Association - wadda ta hada da kungiyoyi 'ytan kwadago 17 - ta kasance a kan gaba wajen jgorantar wannan sabuwar hadakar kungiyoyin masu neman kawo sauyi a Sudan da kuma kawo karshen mulkin Omar al Bashir.

3. Zaman durshan a birnin Khartoum

Da boren ya ci gaba da bazuwa, sai al Bashir ya kafa dokar ta baci a fadin kasar, kuma ya nada wasu jami'an tsaro ga mukaman gwamnonin wilayoyin kasar 18 - amma matakin y aba shi sauki makwanni ne a siyasance.

Ranar 6 ga watan Afrilu, rana ce ta tunawa da wani bore mai matukar farin jin da aka yi a 1985. A wancan lokacin ne aka tilastawa Shugaba Jaafar Nimeiri bayan ya shafe shekaru yana mulkin kasar.

A wannan ranar dubban 'yan Sudan suka hallara a gaban shalkwatar rundunar sojojin kasar a Khartoum, inda suka fara wani zama da ya kasance wani wurin da masu zanga-zangar ke kallo a matsayin alamar turjiyarsu ta kafa dimokradiyya.

Wannan gagarumin taron ya bayyana barakar da ke tsakanin bangarorin da ke goyon bayan Omar al Bashir.

Rahotanni sun bayyana cewa yawancin sojojin kasar ba sa goyon bayan gwamnati, kuma a shirye suke su mara wa masu zanga-zangar baya.

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Image caption Salah ta jagoranci matasa da wakoki a gaban shalkwatar sojojin Sudan a watan Afrilu

4. Muhimmiyar rawar da mata suka taka

Wasu hotuna na wata dalibar jami'a mai suna Alaa Salah, mai shekara 22 da haihuwa tana jagorantar matasa a gaban shalkwatar sojojin kasar a Khartoum ya sauya alkiblar zanga-zangar.

An ga Salah sanye da fararen tufafi, kuma tana tsaye bisa wata mota inda ta rika yin kira ga matan Sudan - wadanda sun dade ana tursasa musu a kasar - da su fito a yi da su.

Wannan jajircewar da daliba Alaa Salah ta yi na bayyana a sama, yayin da maza ke tsaye a kasanta ya ja hankulan al'ummomin duniya.

5. Karshen mulkin Al-Bashir

Da sanyin safiyar 11 ga watan Afrilu, mutanen Sudan sun fita suna murna, suna ta rika rera wakoki, wadanda a ciki suna cewa "Sabon karni, sabuwar kasa!".

Masu rera wakokin ba su yi kuskure ba, domin sa'o'i kadan bayan haka sai rundunar sojojin kasar ta sanar da hambare Al-Bashir daga mulki.

A wani jawabi da ya gabatar a talabijin, ministan tsaro Ahmed Ibn Auf ya ce an kama al-Bashir kuma ana tsare da shi "a wani wuri mai cikakken tsaro".

Daga baya an daure Al-Bashir wanda shekarunsa 75 da haihuwa a gidan kurkuku na Kobar, inda ya daure dubban masu adawa da shi a tsawon mulkinsa wanda ya fara a 1989, lokacin da ya kwace mulki ta hanyar juyin mulkin da ba a zubar da jini ba.

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Image caption Janar Ahmed Ibn Auf

A cikin jawabin nasa, Ibn Auf ya sanar da cewa Majalisar Mulkin Soja ta kasar (TMC) za ta mulki kasar na tsawon shekara biyu, wanda a karshe ya yi alkawari cewa za gudanar da zabe mai sahihanci da adalci.

Majalisar ta kuma jinginar da aiki da tsarin mulkin kasar, kuma ta ayyana wata uku na dokar ta baci a fadin kasar.

6. Mulkin soja ya tabbata

Shirin da majalisar mulkin sojan ta gabatar ya fusata masu zanga-zanga, kuma ba su bata lokaci ba su ka yi watsi da shi.

Murnar da ta lullube kasar bayan hambare Al-Bashir sai ta sauya zuwa fushi kan matakin gwamnatin mulkin sojan da 'yan Sudan suka tuhuma da yi musu juyin mulki.

'Yan adawa sun kuma zargi sojojin da yin rufa-rufa domin dawo da yawancin jami'an da suka taka rawa a gwamnatin Al-Bashir cikin wannan gwamnatin.

Daga nan ne masu zanga-zanga suka sake mamaye hedikwatar dakarun tsaro ta kasar.

Da zazzafar zanga-zanga ta sake kunno kai, sai Ibn Awf ya sauka bayan kwana daya kawai a kan mukamin shugaban majalisar mukin sojojin kasar.

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Image caption Janar Abdel Fattah al-Burhan

Daga nan ne ya mika mulki ga Janar Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, wanda 'yan adawa ke kallo a matsayin mai sassaucin ra'ayi.

An kuma nada Janar Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, kwamandan rundunar sojoji ta RSF a matsayin mataimakin majalisar.

Dagalo ya yi kaurin suna wajen murkushe masu adawa da gwamnatin Al- Bashir, kuma ana tuhumar rundunar da yake jagoranta da ba shi da farin jini a fadin kasar.

7. Gwamantin soji ta nuna halinta

Tattaunawar da aka yi tsakanin gwamnatin mulkin soja da gamayyar 'yan adawa ta gamu da cikas bayan da baraka ta kunno kai kan wanda zai jagoranci gwamnatin gabanin zaben da aka shirya gudanarwa domin mayar da kasar bisa tafarkin dimokradiyya.

A sakamakon takardamar ne dubban masu zanga-zanga suka taru a gaban hedikwatar sojojin kasar a Khartoum, inda suka bukaci a kafa gwamnatin farar hula ba tare da bata lokaci ba.

Majalisar mulkin sojin kasar ta aika da dakaru domin su tarwatsa taron, kuma da sanyin safiyar 3 ga watan Yunin 2019 sojojin suka bude wuta kan masu zanga-zangar.

Likitoci sun ce an hallaka fiye da mutum 100 - inda aka tsamo gomman gawarwakinsu daga kogin Nilu - kuma masu kare hakkin bil Adama sun zargi rundunar RSF karkashin jagorancin Janar Dagalo da wannan aika-aikar.

8. Intanet ta sauya launi a Sudan

An dode dukkan hanyoyin sadarwa ta intanet cikin sa'o'i bayan kisan da aka yi wa masu zanga-zangar na birnin Khartoum.

Gamayyar 'yan adawa sun dakatar da dukkan ganawar da suke yi da majalisar mulkin sojan kasar.

Ranar 30 ga watan Yuni miliyoyin 'yan Sudan sun fita bisa titunan kasar domin gudanar da abin da aka kira "macin miliyoyi". Matakin ya dakatar da dukkan ayyukan kasuwanci da na gwamnati a Khartoum da birnin Omdurman.

A yayin da aka rufe intanet a cikin Sudan, 'yan kasar da ke zaune a kasashen ketare sun fara wani gangami a shafukan sada zumunta domin sanar da duniya halin da ake ciki a kasarsu ta gado.

Daga nan ne aka fara wani gangami mai shudin launi a Twitter da Instagram da Facebook domin karrama Mohamed Mattar, wani matashi mai shekara 26 da aka kashe a yayin zanga-zangar, wanda kuma aka ce yana son shudin launi matuka.

9. Shelar amfani da tsarin mulki

Bayan an shafe makonni ana tattaunawa a karkashin inuwar Tarayyar Afirka, AU, da Habasha, janar-janar da ke jagorantar gwamnatin mulkin soja ta kasar da 'yan adawa sun rattaba hannu kan wata yarjejeniya da ta bude hanyar mayar da Sudan bisa tafarkin mulkin farar hula.

Yarjejeniyar ta ce za ta samar da gwamnatin hadin gwiwa da bangarorin biyu za su kafa na tsawon shekara uku.

Tsarin da aka fitar zai samar da sabuwar gwamnati mai ministoci 11, wanda cikinsu akwai fararen hula biyar, na sojoji biyar sannan bangarorin biyu za su nada wani mutum guda da zai zama firai minista. Janar al-Burhan ne zai jagoranci sabuwar majalisar.

10. Hamdok ya zama Firai minista

An nada Abdallah Hamdok a matsayin firai ministan Sudan ranar 21 ga watan Agusta. Hamdok ya sami karbuwa saboda rawar da ya taka ta jakada da kwararre a fagen tattalin arziki.

Wannan matakin ya kasance shi ne farkon wata 39 na gwamnatin hadin gwuiwa da za ta mulki kasar.

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Image caption Firai Minista Abdallah Hamdok na Sudan

Aikin da ke gaban Hamdok sun hada da tabbatar da zaman lafiya a kasar, da farfado da tattalin arzikinta. Akwai kuma batun nan na cire Sudan daga jadawalin nan na Amurka na kasashe masu ba 'yan ta'adda mafaka.

11. Ana daukar matakan da suka dace kuwa?

Makwanni kadan bayan an rantsar da shi, Abdallah Hamdok ya tafi Juba, babban birnin Sudan ta Kudu domin fara tattaunawa da jagororin 'yan tawayen kasarsa.

An hada su wuri guda ne domin kawo karshen yake-yaken basasa da al'umomin Sudan suka shafe shekaru tana gwabzawa.

A karsen watan Nuwamba gwamnati ta soke jam'iyyar National Congress Party ta Al-Bashir kuma ta soke dokar da ta ayyana irin tufafin da mata kan iya sanyawa a kasar.

A Disamba kuma, Firai Minista Hamdok ya ziyarci birnin Washington DC, inda ya gana da sakataren harkokin waje na Amurka, Mike Pompeo.

Mista Pompeo ya sanar da shi cewa kasashen biyu za su fara huldar diflomasiyya bayan sun shafe shekara 23 suna gaba.

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Image caption Tsohon shugaban Sudan Omar al Bashir bayan an yanke ma sa hukunci

12. An yanke wa Al-Bashir hukunci

Ranar 14 ga watan Disamba wata kotu a Khartoum ta yanke wa tsohon Shugaba Omar al Bashir hukuncin shekara biyu a gidan kurkuku bayan ta same shi da laifin cin hanci da rashawa.

Alkalin da ya yi shari'ar kuma ya bayar da umarnin a kwace wasu miliyoyin kudade na euro da fam din kasar Sudan da aka gano a gidan tsohon shugaban kasar bayan da aka hambare shi daga mulki.

Gamayyar 'yan adawar Sudan sun amince da matakin shari'ar da kotun ta dauka, kuma ta nemi da gagguta gudanar da sauran shari'un da ake masa.

Kotun kasa-da-kasa, ICC mai yi wa wadanda ake tuhuma da aikata laifuka kamar kisan kiyashi da cin mutuncin dubban al'umomin kasarsa na neman Al-Bashir domin ya amsa tuhuma kan kisan kiyashin da aka yi wa 'yan Sudan a yankin Darfur.

Omar al Bashir ya dade yana musanta aikata wannan ta'asar. Kawo yanzu dai ba a cimma matsaya tsakanin gwamnatin Sudan da kotun ta ICC kan mika Al-Bashir ya fuskanci shari'a a can ba.

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