Kun san bayanan sirrin da aka kwarmata a tsawon shekara hudu?

Policemen rowing down a street in the 1947 London floods Hakkin mallakar hoto Topical Press Agency
Image caption An samu ambaliyar ruwa mai yawa, amma kwarmata bayanan sirri 'yan kalilan

Takardun bayanan sirri na Paradise na cikin mafi girma daga cikin wadanda aka taba bankadowa da ke bayani filla-filla game da harajin attajirai da wasu sanannun mutane.

Kuma babban muhimmin batu shi ne yadda dukkanin bayanan ke da alaka da wani kamfanin lauyoyi a wasu tsibirai da ake boye kudaden.

Mutum zai yi mamakin girman bayanan sirrin da aka bankado kan takardun na Paradise.

Matsalar ita ce, ba wannan ne karon farko ba, kuma kamar yadda ko shakka babu, bankado bayanan ya sa cikin wasu ya duri ruwa.

Amma yana da wahala a iya fahimtar tasirin tonon sililin da kuma yadda al'ummar duniya za su kalli lamarin musamman game da gyara sha'anin haraji.

Kamar yadda Gerard Ryle, daya daga cikin 'yan jaridar da suka bankado bayanan ke kallon lamarin, ya ce bayanan sirrin za su yi tasiri sosai ga tsibiran da ake kai dukiya a boye domin kauce wa biyan haraji.

Saboda yanzu ba su san inda binciken zai sake karkata ba da kuma wadanda zai shafa ba.

Don haka yanzu bari mu duba wasu manyan bayanan da aka taba bankadowa a shekaru hudu da suka gabata.

Bari mu fara da manya.

Takardun Panama na 2016

Takardun Panama sun fi yawa, domin idan kana tunanin girman bayanan sirrin da Wikileaks ya taba bankadowa a shekarar 2010 da suka shafi huldar diflomasiyar kasashe, tona Panama sun lunlunka da yawan bayanai 1,500.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Mutum biyun da suka bayar da haske har aka fara bincike a kan takardun Panama

Wikileaks na da mabambantan bayanai, domin idan muka tsaya kan batun kudi, takardun Panama sun fito ne bayan wata majiya mai karfi ta tuntubi wata jaridar kasar Jamus, Süddeutsche Zeitung a shekarar 2015, inda ta mika ma ta wasu muhimman takardun wani kamfanin lauyoyi mai suna Mossack Fonseca.

A ranar 3 ga watan Afrilu ne 'yan jaridun ICIJ da ke kwarmaton suka wallafa bayanan sirrin na Panama bayan an shafe shekara guda ana cikakken nazari kafin a wallafa.

Sunan su waye a ciki?

Da farko an mayar da hankali kan yadda makusanta ga Shugaban Rasha Vladimir Putin suka boye kudade a sassan duniya.

Akwai Firaministan Iceland mai murabus da na Pakistan da kotun kolin kasar ta tube.

A takaice dai, an fallasa manyan shugabannin duniya na yanzu da wadanda suka gabata, da manyan 'yan siyasa fiye da 120, da manyan jami'an gwamnati da hamshakan masu kudi da shahararrun mutane da suka hada da 'yan wasa.

Wa ya tona asirin?

John Doe. Kodayake ba sunan gaskiya ba ne, domin a Amurka a kan boye sunan mutum a irin wannan yanayi ko a kan wani laifi.

Amma har yanzu ba a tantance sunan wanda ya yi fallasar ba.

Watanni biyar bayan bankado takardun Panama, 'yan jaridar ICIJ da ke binciken na sirri sun sake bankado wasu bayanan wani kamfani da ke yi wa kamfanoni rijista a Bahamas, inda a nan ne aka fallasa yadda Firaministoci da manyan jami'an gwamnatoci da 'ya'yan sarakuna ke boye kudadensu a tsibiran da wasu ke kira da Hausa "tudun mun tsira".

Bayanan Swiss da aka bankado a shekarar 2015

Kungiyar 'yan jarida ta duniya daga kasashe 45 da ke binciken kwarmaton sun fito bainar jama'a a watan Fabrairun 2015.

Sun mayar da hankali ne a kan wani banki mai suna HSBC, inda suka duba wadanda ke mu'amala da Bankin.

Bayanan da suka bankado sun shafi asusun masu ajiya tun daga shekarar 2007, inda suka gano mutane fiye da dubu 100 masu alaka da bankin daga kasashe 200, wadanda ke kusa da gwamnati.

Sunan su waye a ciki?

'Yan jaridar sun ce Bankin na HSBC na samun riba ne daga masu safarar makamai da makamantansu.

Sannan sun bayyana sunayen wasu makusanta ga tsoffin shugabannin kasashen Gabas ta Tsakiya da guguwar sauyi ta yi awon gaba da su kamar tsohon Shugaban Masar Hosni Mubarak da Ben Ali na Tunisia da kuma shugaban kasar Syria mai ci Bashar al- Assad.

Wa ya tona asirin?

Hakkin mallakar hoto Reuters
Image caption Babban mai kwarmata bayanan sirri Hervé Falciani

'Yan jaridar sun samu bayanan ne daga wani injiniyan manhaja Bafaranshe mai tonon silili Herve Falciani, kodayake sai daga baya ne kungiyar ICIJ ta samu bayanan daga wata majiya ta daban.

Daga 2008 ya mika wa hukumomin Faransa bayanai akan Bankin HSBC, inda su kuma suka rarrabawa wasu gwamnatoci.

An tuhumi Mista Falciani a Switzerland, inda aka kama shi a Spain kafin daga bisani aka sake shi, yanzu kuma yana rayuwarsa a Faransa.

Bayanan Luxembourg na 2014

Wannan ma na daga cikin tonon sililin da 'Yan jaridar ICIJ suka yi wanda aka fallasa a watan Nuwamban 2014

Binciken ya mayar da hankali ne a kan yadda wani kamfani da ya shahara a aikin lissafin kudi da ake kira PricewaterHouseCooper ya taimakawa kamfanoni da dama samun sassaucin haraji a Luxembourg tsakanin 2002 zuwa 2010.

Binciken 'yan jaridun ya ce mutane daga da dama sun boye makudan kudi a Luxembourg saboda sassaucin haraji, inda binciken ya ce har ta kai za a iya samun gida daya a kasar da ke kunshi da kamfanoni 1,600.

Sunan su waye a ciki?

Kamfanoni da dama ne kamar Pepsi da IKEA da AIG wasu Bankuna.

Kamfanoni kamar Walt Disney Co da Skype na cikin wadanda suka musanta aikata ba daidai ba a rahoton da 'yan jaridan suka kwarmato.

Jean-Claude Juncker yana Firaminista a lokacin da Luxembourg ta kafa dokokin yakar kaucewa biyan haraji, kuma an zabe shi kwanaki kalilan ne a matsayin shugaban hukumar Tarayyar Turai aka fallasa bayanan na sirri.

A lokacin ya ce shi bai taba karfafa gwiwar kauce wa biyan haraji ba.

Juncker ya sha suka, lamarin da har ta kai Tarayyar Turai ta kaddamar da bincike kan matsalar kaucewa biyan haraji.

Wa ya tona asirin?

Hakkin mallakar hoto AFP/ Getty Images
Image caption Daga hagu: Edouard Perrin da Raphael Halet da kuma Antoine Deltour

Bafaranshe Antoine Deltour, tsohon ma'aikacin kamfanin PricewaterhouseCoopers ne ya yi fallasar, yana mai cewa ya aikata haka ne saboda hakkin jama'a.

Sannan ya samu taimakon wani abokin aikinsa Rapheal Halet.

Kamfanin PWC dai ya shigar da kara kotu domin kalubalantar ma'aikatansa da wani dan jarida Edouard Perrin, inda har ta kai aka zartarwa Mista Deltour hukuncin daurin watanni shida da aka dakatar.

Daga baya kuma kotu ta wanke Mista Perrin.

Kwarmaton wasu tsibirai a shekaar 2013.

Duk da cewa girman bayanan ba su da yawa idan aka kwatanta da bayanan Panama, amma su ne mafi girma da aka fallasa kan badakalar kaucewa bayan haraji a duniya da aka bankado.

An kwarmato kundaye miliyan biyu da rabi da suka fallasa sunayen kamfanoni 120,000 da aka boye a Tsibiran Birtaniya, wato Virgin Islands da Cook Islands.

Sunan su waye a ciki?

Kamar yadda aka saba, sunayen manyan 'yan siyasa ne da jami'an gwamnati da iyalansu, musamman daga Rasha da China da Azerbaijan da Canada da Thailand da Mongolia da Pakistan da kuma iyalan gidan tsohon shugaban Philippines Ferdinand Marcos.

Kodayake 'yan jaridar sun ce babu hujjojin da ke nuna akwai badakala a fallasar.

Wa ya tona asirin?

ICIJ ta ce ta samu bayanan ne daga wani Banki mai zaman kasa a Jersey da wani kamfani a Bahamas, kuma baya ga bayanan babu wasu da suka samu.

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