Robert Mugabe: Karanta tarihin tsohon shugaban kasar Zimbabwe

Na'urarku na da matsalar sauraren sauti
Takaitaccen tarihin rayuwar Robert Mugabe

A matsayinsa na firai ministan Zimbabwe na farko mai cin gashin kansa, inda daga baya kuma ya zamo shugaban kasa, Robert Mugabe ya yi alkawarin dimokradiyya da sasantawa.

Amma fatan da ya biyo bayan samun 'yancin kai a shkerar 1980 sai ya rikide zuwa rikixi, cin hanci da tabarbarewar tattalin arziki.

Shugaba Mugabe ya zamo mai sukar Kasashen Yamma, musamman ma Birtaniya, wacce ita ce tsohuwar kasar da ta yi wa tasa mulkin mallaka, wacce yake kira da "makiyiyar kasa."

Duk da irin yadda yake gallazawa 'yan hamayyar siyaysa da rashin manufofin tattalin arziki masu kyau a kasar da a baya ta yi zarra, ya ci gaba da samun goyon bayan shugabannin kasashen Afirka, wadanda suke ganinsa a matsayin wani gwarzo da yake yaki da mulkin mallaka,

An haifi Robert Gabriel Mugabe a kasara da a baya ake kiranta Rhodesia, ranar 21 ga watan Fabrairun 1924. Mahaifinsa kafinta ne daga kabilar Shona.

Ya yi karatunsa a makarantun 'yan mishan na Roman Katolika, ya kuma samu damar zama malamin makaranta.

Ya samu damar kara karatu a Jami'ar Fort Hare da ke Afirka Ta Kudu inda ya yi digirinsa har bakwai kafin daga bisani ya koyar a Ghana, inda yake da son akidar fitatceen shugaban kasar Ghana Kwame Nkrumah. Matarsa ta farko 'yar Ghana ce.

A shekarar 1960, Mugabe ya koma kasarsa Rhodesia. Da farko ya yi aiki da jam'iyyar African nationalist tare da Joshua Nkomo, kafin daga bisani ya balle ya zama wanda ya kirkiri tasa jam'iyyar ta Zimbabwe African National Union (Zanu).

An kama Mugabe a shekarar 1964, bayan da ya yi wani jawabi inda ya kira Firai Ministan Rhodesia na wancan lokaci da yaransa da suna "cowboys", an tsare ba tare da an yi masa shari'a ba tsawon shekara 10.

Dansa dan jariri ya mutu a lokacin da yake tsare a gidan yari kuma an hana shi halartar jana'izar.

Ko a shekarar 1973 da yake tsare har lokacin, an zabe shugaban jam'iyyar Zanu.

Bayan an sake shi ya tabi Mozambique inda ya ringa ba da umarnin kai hare-haren sari-ka-noke a kasarsa. Jam'iyyarsa ta Zanu ta hada kai da jami'iyyar Nkomo ta Zimbabwe African People's Union (Zapu).

Kungiyarsa ta Zanu ta kulla abota da jam'iyyar Nkomo ta Zimbabwe Africa People Union (ZAPU).

Yayin tattaunawar neman 'yancin kan Rhodesia mai sarkakiya, an yi wa Mugabe kallon shugaban bakake mafi tayar da jijiyar wuya, wanda kuma ba ya sassauta wa a kan bukatun da ya gabatar.

A wata ziyara da ya kai Landan a shekarar 1976, ya ayyana cewa hanya daya kacal ta warware matsalar Rhodesia ita ce ta yin amfani da bakin bindiga.

Sasantawa

Kwarewarsa ta fuskar sasantawa ta samar masa da kima a idon masu sukarsa. 'Yan Jarida na masa kirari da 'mai zurfin tunani'.

Yarjejeniyar Lancaster a 1979 wadda ta samar da kundin tsarin mulki ga sabuwar kasar Zimbabwe a matsayin jamhuriya, aka kuma tsayar da shekarar 1980 don gudanar da zabukan farko da ya bai wa bakake masu rinjiye dama.

Bayan fafatawa a zaben Mugabe ya samu gagarumar nasara, nasarar da ta ba da mamaki. Jam'iyyar Zanu ta samu ta gaggarumin rinjay.e.

A matsayinsa na mai bayyana kansa na mai bin akidar gurguzu, nasarar Mugabe ta sanya fararen fatar Rhodesia kokarin barin kasar, yayin da magoya bayansa suka rika rawa a tituna don nuna farin cikinsu.

Kalaman da ya yi tunda farko ya tabbatarwa da 'yan hamayya zai gudanar da budaddiyar gwamnati wadda babu tsangwama babu bi-ta da kulli sannan babu kwace kadarorin 'yan kasa.

Daga baya kuma ya fitar da manufofinsa na bunkasa tattalin arziki, wadda ya kunshi kamfanoni masu zaman kansu da kamfanonin gwamnati.

Mugabe ya kuma kaddamar da gagarumin shirin kyautata bangaren kiwon lafiya da inganta ilimi ga bakake 'yan kasar ta Zambabwe wadanda turawan mulkin mallaka suka danne.

Tsamin dangantaka tsakanin Firamista Nkomo da Mugabe tayi kamari saboda yadda Firamista ke nuna son jam'iyya daya tayi kane-kane mulkin kasar.

Bayan an gano wasu tarun makamai mallakin Jam'iyyar Zanu sai akayi wasu sauye-sauye a majalisar ministoci inda aka kori Fira minista Nkomo.

Yayin da yake ikirarin inganta demokaradiyya, dakan-kadan ya dinga kawar da 'yan hamayya. A tsakiyar 1980 aka kashe dibban 'yan kabilar Ndebele wadanda magoya bayan Nkomo ne a yankin Matabeleland.

'Kwace dukiyoyi'

An zargi Mugabe da bai wa sojojin umarnin aikata kisan kiyashi, amma aka kau da ido ba a hukunta su ba.

Bayan kawar da ofisihin Firamista, Mugabe ya zama shugaban kasa a 1987, inda aka zabeshi a zango na uku a 1996.

A shekarar ne kuma ya auri matarsa ta biyu Grace Marufu, bayan da matarsa ta farko ta mutu sanadiyar cutar daji, Mugabe sun haifi 'ya'ya da Grace.

Dansa na farko yana da shekaru 40, yayinda na ukun aka haifeshi sa'ilin shugaba Mugabe yanada shekaru 73.

'Magoya bayan jam'iyyar Zanu-PF sun mamaye Gonaki'

Ya samu nasarar kawar da nuna wayar launin fata, amma a 1992 aka samar da dokar mallafi fili, wadda ya bada damar kwace filaye ba tare da daukaka kara ba.

Manufar itace sake raba filayen noma ga manoma fararen fata 4,500 wadanda suka mallaki mafi yawan gonaki masu kyau.

A farkon shekara ta 2000 lokacin da mulkin shugaba Mugabe ke fuskantar barazana daga gamayyar jam'iyyar neman sauyi da Morgan Tsvangirai, Mugabe ya kawar da manoman da suke nuna goyon bayansu ga yunkurin kawar dashi.

Magoya bayan Mugabe wadanda ake kira 'mayaka' sun mamaye gonakin fararen fata, sannan aka kashe ma'aikata bakaken fata.

'Kungiyoyin agajin na ketare'

Matakan da aka dauka sun durkusar da tattalin arzikin Zimbabwe inda fannin noma ya shiga rudani. Masu sukar Mugabe sun zargeshi da rabawa magoya bayansa Gonaki maimakon baiwa masu karamin karfi da suke karkara.

Kasar Zambabwe ta fado daga matsayin na jagaba a Afrika wajen samar da abinci, inda ta koma dogaro da taimakon kasashen wajen wajen ciyar da 'yan kasarta.

A shekara ta 2000 lokacin zabukan majalisar dokoki, jam'iyyar MDC ta lashe kujeru 57 daga cikin 120, ko da shike kujeru 20 Mugabe ne ya bada sunansu wadda hakan ya bai wa jam'iyyar Zanu-PF damar zama kan mulki daram.

Bayan shekaru biyu, a zaben shugaban kasa, Mugabe ya samu kashi 56 cikin dari na kuru'un da aka kada, idan aka kwatanta da kashi 41 na kuru'un Mista Tsvangirai, bayan da aka yi wa magoya bayan jam'iyyar MDC barazana.

Jama'a da dama a karkara an hanasu kada kuri'a inda aka rufe runfunan zabe.

Wasu 'yan jam'iyyar MDC sunce magoya bayan Mugabe sun lakada musu duka da sanduna a Masvingo kudu da birnin Harare a watan Mayun 2008.

Jam'iyyar MDC da Amurka da Birtaniya da kuma Tarayyar Turai ba su amince da sakamakon zabukan ba, saboda zargin aikata magudi inda aka mayar da Mugabe da kasarsa saniyar ware.

Kazalika, kungiyar kasashe rainon Ingila ta dakatar da Zambabwe daga halartar taronta har sai ta gyara dimokaradiyarta.

A watan Mayun 2005, Mugabe ya jagoranci wani shiri na dawo da doka da oda, inda aka kai samame kasuwar bayan fage abinda aka kira sabawa doka.

An kama kananan 'yan kasuwa dubu 30,000, inda kuma aka rushe gurarensu karshe hakan ya raba akalla 'yan Zambabwe dubu 700,000 da mahallansu.

Tarihin rayuwar Robert Mugabe a takaice

Hakkin mallakar hoto AFP
Image caption Shugaba Mugabe ya bai wa matarsa Grace goyon bayan zama mataimakiyar shugaba
  • 1924: Shekarar da aka haife shi
  • An horar da shi a matsayin malami
  • 1964: Gwamnatin Rhodesia ta daure shi
  • 1980: Ya lashe zaben da aka yi bayan 'yancin kai
  • 1996: Ya auri Grace Marufu
  • 2000: Bai yi nasara ba a zaben raba-gardamr da aka yi ba na karfin ikon shugaban kasa da kuma hana Turawa mallakar gonaki
  • 2008: Ya zo na biyu a zagayen farko na zaben da suka fafata da Tsvangirai, wanda ya janye saboda harin da aka kai kan magoya bayansa
  • 2009: Ya rantsar da Tsvangirai a matsayin firai minista a lokacin da ake fuskantar durkushewar tattalin arziki a kasar
  • 2016: An gabatar da takardun lamuni a yayin da karancin takardun kudya yi tsanani
  • 2017: Ya kori mataimakinsa da ya dade suna aiki tare wato Emmerson Mnangagwa

'Cece-kuce'

A watan Maris na 2008, Mugabe ya fadi a zagayen farko na zaben shugaban kasa, sai dai yayi nasara a zagaye na biyu a watan Yuni, bayan da Mista Tsvangirai ya janye daga zaben.

Bayan farfadowa daga haren-haren da aka kaiwa magoya bayansaa cikin kasar, Mista Tsvangirai ya kafe cewa zai yi wuya a samu nagartaccen zabe.

Tabarbarewar tattalin arzikin Zambabwe ya haddasa hauhawar farashi wadda ya kai wani mummunan yanayi.

Bayan daruruwan mutane sun rasa ransu sanadiyar cutar Kwalara, saboda gwamnati ta gaza samar da sinadaran tsaftace ruwan sha, Mugabe ya amince da babban abokin hamayyarsa su kafa gwamnati.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Ana iya ganin Robert Mugabe nan (a hagu), cikin 1960, inda ya samu kaimi daga akidojin naka-sai-naka a Afirka

'Yarjeniyar rabon mukaman ta gamu da cikas'

Bayan tattaunawa ta watanni, cikin watan Fabarairun 2009 Mugabe ya rantsar da Mista Tsvangirai a matsayin Firaminista.

Hakan dai baizo da mamaki ba, kasancewa yarjejeniyar batayi nisa ba, saboda yadda aka rika fuskantar cece-kuce da zarge-zarge daga wasu hukumomin kare hakkin bil adama na cewa an kulle tare da azaftar da masu hamayya da Mugabe.

Zaben 2013, wadda Mugabe ya lashe da kashi 61 cikin 100, shine ya kawo karshen yarjejeniyar raba mukamai inda Mista Tsvangirai ya kaura cewa harkokin siyasa.

Yayin da ake cigaba da zarge-zargen magudin zabe, tsohon sakataren majalisar dinkin duniya Ban Ki-moon ya bukaci a gudanar da bincike.

Hakkin mallakar hoto AFP
Image caption Masu zanga-zanga a shekarar 2016 sun kona kudin kasar da ba shi da daraja don nuna kin amincewa da gabatar da takardun lamuni a matsayin kudi

'Magabata'

An sake zabar shugaba Mugabe yana da 89, ya sake tabbatar da matsayin na cigaba da rike madafan iko.

Shekarun da shafe yana mulki da kuma rashin lafiyar da yake fama, yayi haifar da rade-raden zai iya gadar.

To amma take-taken wadanda suke fatan su gaje shi, ya bayyana raunin da gwamnatin Zimbabwe take dashi kuma ya nuna cewa badon tsauwar dakan da Mugabe yayi ba, da ta wargaje.

An yi ta jita-jitar cewa matar Mugabe Grace, zata maye gurbinsa idan rai yayi halinsa, Mugabe ya sanar a 2015 cewa zai yi takara a 2018, lokacin da shekarunsa zasu kai 94.

Domin kawar da duk wani shakku a tsakanin masu son su gaje shi, Mugabe ya sanar a watan Fabarairun 2016 cewar zai cigaba da mulki har sai bayan ransa.

Ana haka ranar 15 ga watan 2017 sojojin kasar Zimbabwe suka yi masa daurin talala a gidansa, bayan kwanaki hudu mataimakinsa Emmerson Mnangagwa ya maye gurbinsa a shugabanncin jam'iyyar Zanu-PF.

Sai dai Mugabe yaki amincewa ya sauka, to amma ranar 21 ga watan Nuwamba, lokacin da ake tafka muhawara kan kudirin tsige Robert Mugabe a zauran matsalisar dokoki, kakakin majalisar ya sanar da cewa Robert Mugabe ya sauka daga shugabancin kasar.

Mugabe ya cimma wata yarjejeniya da zata kareshi da iyalansa daga fuskantar shari'a, sannan kuma ya cigaba da rike duk kadarorinsa da harkokin kasuwancinsa. Aan kuma bashi gida da masu hidima da motoci da kuma matsayi na difilomasiyya.

Hakkin mallakar hoto AFP
Image caption Mista Mugabe na cewa yana gwagwarmaya ne don kwatar 'yancin bakaken fata 'yan Zimbabwe

Bayan shekara takwas, an sake bin irin wannan salon bayan da Mista Mugabe ya fadi a zagayen farko na zaben shugaban kasa.

A duk lokacin da aka bukata, a kan yi amfani da dakarun tsaro da kafafen yada labarai na gwamnati, wadanda mambobin jam'iyyar Zanu-PF ne, wajen yi wa jam'iyya mai mulki hidima.

Mutumin wanda ya yi gwagwarmaya kan mutum-daya, kuri'a-daya ya bullo da wani sharadi na cewa mutanen da suka cancanci zabe sai sun tabbatar sun 'yan kasa ne ta hanyar gabatar da takardun shaida na biyan kudin lantarki ko ruwan famfo, abin da da kyar ne idan matasa da tsantsar masu zabe marasa aikin yi 'yan adawa suna da su.

Daya daga cikin nasarorin da tsohon malamin da ya shafe tsawon shekara 33 a kan mulki ya samu shi ne, ba ko tantama ya cimma nasara wajen fadada ilmi.

Zimbabwe a baya-bayan nan na da alkaluman mutanen da suka iya karatu da rubutu mai yawa a Afirka da kashi 90% na al'ummarta.

Masanin kimiyyar siyasa a yanzu marigayi Masipula Sithole ya taba cewa bunkasa ilmin da shugaban kasar ke yi tamkar "hakawa kansa kabari" ne.

Matasan da suka ci gajiyar haka na iya yin tankade da rairaya kan matsalolin Zimbabwe da kansu kuma akasari suna zargin cin hanci da rashin iya gudanarwar da suka dabaibaye gwamnati a matsayin silar rashin samun ayyuka da kuma hauhawar farashi.

Mai riƙon ƙaho

Mista Mugabe na iya yin imani cewa abu ne mai sauki a mulki kasar manoma masu neman abin da za su kai cikinsu da saurin mika wuya a kan zaratan matasa masu karfi a jika da suka koshi da ilmi.

Ya yi ikirarin yana gwagwarmaya ne don talakawan karkara, sai dai filaye da dama da ya kwace sun koma hannuwan 'yan barandansa.

Hakkin mallakar hoto AFP
Image caption Mugabe bai taba tsoron yin amfani da tarzoma ba don ci gaba da mulki

Babban limamin kiristan nan, Desmond Tutu ya taba cewa dadadden shugaban na Zimbabwe ya zama kwatankwacin 'yan kama-karyan Afirka masu riƙon ƙaho.

A lokacin gangamin yakin neman zaben shugaban kasa na 2002, ya fara sanya riguna masu launukan sheki da ke dallare fuskarsa - wani salo na shugabannin Afirka masu mulkin danniya.

A cikin shekaru ashirin dinsa na farko, ana ganin dan ra'ayin riƙau ne kawai a bainar jama'a cikin shigar jaket da lakatayel ko kuma hartin da wando.

An bar 'yan Zimbabwe da yawa, har ma da wasu na tambayar me ya sa ba zai sawwake wa kansa ya je ya huta a 'yan shekarun da suka rage masa da matashiyar matarsa ba.

Hakkin mallakar hoto AFP
Image caption Robert Mugabe ya yi bikin cikarsa shekara 93 a farkon wannan shekara

Matarsa ta biyu, Grace, wadda ya bai wa ratar shekara 40, ta taba cewa yakan tashi da karfe hudun dare ya kama motsa jikin da ya saba kullum.

Mista Mugabe yana dan shekara 73 lokacin da ta haifa musu dansu na uku, Chatunga.

Yana da'awar shi riƙaƙƙen dan katolika ne, kuma lokaci-lokaci jami'an tsaro kan mamaye masu ibada a Majami'ar Katolika ta Harare duk ranar Lahadin da ya je addu'a.

Sai dai, imanin Mugabe bai hana shi samun 'ya'ya guda biyu da Grace ba, lokacin da take sakatariyarsa, yayin da fitacciyar uwargidansa mutuniyar Ghana, Sally, ke fama da jinyar ajali sakamakon cutar kansa.

'Sarki'

Ko da yake, Robert Mugabe ya yi wa mutuwar da ake ta kira masa ƙwari har sai da ta riske shi a ranar 6 ga watan Satumbar 2019, sai dai shekarun da suka laftu a kansa sun yi masa nauyi a baya-bayan nan, inda kaifin bakin da aka san shi da shi a baya, ya koma cike da gajiya idan yana jawabi kafin hambarar da shi.

Wani sakon diflomasiyya na Amurka a shekara ta 2011, da shafin kwarmata bayanai na Wkileaks ya fitar na nuna cewa Mugabe na fama da cutar daji.

Hakkin mallakar hoto AFP
Image caption Matarsa Grace ta ce Mista Mugabe kan farka tsakar dare don motsa jininsa

Idan ba wannan ba, a ko da yaushe Mista Mugabe ya kasance mutum mai tsananin alfahari.

Sau da dama yana cewa zai sauka daga mulki ne kawai idan kammala cika burinsa na "juyin juya hali".

Wannan na nufin sake raba gonakin fararen fata, yana kuma so ya zabi mutumin da zai gaje shi da hannunsa, wanda tabbas zai fito daga cikin jam'iyyarsa ta Zanu-PF.

Didymus Mutasa, da ya taba zama makusantan Mista Mugabe amma yanzu sun yi hannun riga, ya taba fada wa BBC cewa a al'adar Zimbabwe, ana maye gurbin sarakuna ne kadai idan sun mutu "kuma Mugabe sarkinmu ne".

Sai dai ga alama kamar wasu daga cikin tsoffin abokan tafiyarsa ba su shirya wa kafuwar daular ba.

Labarai masu alaka