Abubuwan mamaki takwas na kimiyya da suka faru a 2017

Shekara ce mai cike da abubuwa da suka faru a karon farko da kuma wasu abubuwa da suka kawo karshensu: kumbon samaniya na Kasini ya kammala aikinsa na shekara 13, yayin da wasu matattun taurari suka yi taho-mu-gama a sararin samaniya saboda yanayin kurar karfen taurarin.

BBC ta yi nazari kan takwas daga cikin labaran kimiyyar yanayi da suka fi ko wanne yin fice a shekarar 2017.

Hatsarin taurari

Hakkin mallakar hoto PA
Image caption Taswirar da wani mai zane ya yi game da yadda yake ganin taho-mu-gamar taurari biyun

A shekarar 2017, masana kimiyya sun gano motsin maganadisun kasa da Einstein ya yi hasashe daga wani wuri na daban - karon taurari biyu.

An sanar da gano wannan motsin na karon farko ne a shekarar 2016, a lokacin da dakin bincike na Advanced LIGO ya bayyana yamutsa sararin samaniya sanadiyyar hadewar bakaken ramuka biyu da ke da nisa da juna.

An jinjina wa sakamakon a matsayin wani sabon reshe na ilimin taurari, amfani da motsin maganadisu domin tattara alkaluma game da abubuwan da ke faruwa daga nesa.

Na'urorin hangen nesa daga fadin duniya sun nadi yadda taurarin biyu suka hade. Fashewar ta faru ne a wani wuri mai nisan kimanin kilomita dubu biliyan daya.

Wasu daga cikin bayanai game da wannan gagarumin al'amarin na da ban-mamaki. Alal misali, taurarin neutron suna da kauri ta yadda cikin cokali zai kai nauyin tan biliyan daya.

Masanan sun tabbatar da cewa irin wannan karon ne ya samar da zinari da karfen platinum da ake da su a fadin duniya.

Kumbon Cassini ya karasa aikinsa

Hakkin mallakar hoto NASA/JPL-CALTECH
Image caption Tasiwra: Kumbon Cassini ya tafiya a wani tsukekken gibi tsakanin saman duniyar Saturn da kuma zobenta

Kumbon Cassini ya kai duniyar Saturn ne a shekarar 2004. A cikin shekaru 13 da kumbon ya yi aiki, ya sauya fahimtarmu game da duniyar mai zobe da watanninta.

Ya gano mabubbugin ruwa mai fesa ruwan kankara da turiri zuwa sararin samaniya daga watan Enceladus mai kankara a lokacin da kumbon ke aiki.

Amma domin mai na karewa daga tankin man, sai hukumar binciken sararin samaniya ta NASA ta lalata kumbon a saman duniyar Saturn maimakon kumbon ya ci karo da wani abin da ake saka wa ido a binciken rayuwa, kaman watan Enceladus, ya kuma gurbata shi da kwayoyin halitta na sararin samaniya.

Ranar 15 ga watan Satumba, Cassini ya shiga sararin samaniyar babbar duniyar kuma aka barke shi. Kuma ya iya mayar da bayanan duniyar mutane a daidai lokacin da yake fuskantar halaka.

Janyewa daga yarjejeniyarParis

Hakkin mallakar hoto EPA

A lokacin da yake yakin neman zabe, Donald Trump ya ce zai soke yarjejeniyar Paris kan sauyin yanayi, kuma zai cire Amurka daga yarjejeniyar.

Amman bayan ya lashe zaben Amurka a watan Nuwamban wannan shekarar, ya yi kalamai kadan a bainar jama'a kan lamarin sauyin yanayi.

Rahotanni sun fito cewa kawunan masu bai wa Mista Trump shawara kan lamarin ya rabu, abin da ya sa wasu masu sharhi suka yi taunain cewa ta yiwu shugaban ya gamsu da ci gaba da yarjejeniyar.

Duk da haka, ranar daya ga watan Yuni, Shugaba Trump ya yi wani taron manema labarai a lambun Rose da ke fadar White House inda ya sanar da janyewar Amurka.

Mista Trump ya ce: "Domin in cika alkawarin da na dauka na kare Amurka da 'ya'yanta, Amurka za ta janye daga yarjejeniyar yanayi ta Paris ... amma ta fara tattaunawa domin sake shiga yarjejeniyar Paris din ko kuma wata sabuwar yarjejeniyar ta daban kan sharrudan da za su dace da muradun Amurka."

Kamar yadda aka yi tsammani, 'yan jam'iyyar Demokrat da kuma shuagabannin duniya sun mayar da martani da yin Allah-Wadai da matakin shugaba Trump.

Tsohon shugaban Amurka, Barack Obama ya zargi gwamanatin Trump da yin watsi da makomar mutane masu zuwa, yayin da tsohon sakataren harkokin waje John Kerry ya bayyana matakin a matsayin tsagoran watsi da aikin shugabanci.

Duniyoyi "masu yawa"

Hakkin mallakar hoto Nature
Image caption Taswira: Wannan shi ne adadi mafi yawa na duniyoyi masu kama da duniyar mutane da suka kewaye tauraro daya

Daga cikin duniyoyi 3,500 da aka tabbatar da kasancewarsu nesa daga duniyar mutane da rana da wata, wasu na da matukar ba da mamaki. Ga wadanda ba su sani ba akwai duniyar J1407b wadda take da zobe da ya fi zoben duniyar Saturn girma sau 200.

Amma a wannan shekarar, masu ilimin taurari sun gano wasu jerin taurari da ke da duniya bakwai da suka ka kai duniyarmu.

Bugu da kari wadannan duniyoyin da alamar sun bin wani tsari ne yayin da suke kewaye tauraronsu.

Kuma uku daga cikin duniyoyin suna wuararen da rayuwa za ta iya kasancewa ne inda za a iya samun ruwa a sama. Kuma duk inda aka samu ruwa, akwai yiwuwar rayuwa.

Dangin kwanan nan

Hakkin mallakar hoto Philipp Gunz/MPI EVA Leipzig
Image caption Kwarangwal na mutanen yanzu da aka sake zanawa bisa hotunan kasusuwa da aka dauka

A watan Yuli, masu bincike sun fitar da kasusuwan wasu mutanen farko da aka samu a arewacin Afirka wadanda suka nuna cewa mutanen yanzu - Homo sapiens -sun bayyana, akalla shekara 100,000 fiye da yadda ake hasashe da.

Sakamakon binciken ya nuna cewa mutanen yanzu ba su fito daga zuri'a daya daga gabashin Afirka ba. Maimakon haka ta yiwu halittar mutanen yanzu ta dade tana juyawa a fadin nahiyar.

Kuma akwai karin manyan labarai game da juyin halittar dan Adam a wannan shekarar.

A lokacin da masana kimiyya suka fitar da wasu bangarori na kasusuwan mutane 15 na wata sabuwar halittar mutane, labarin ya yi suna a fadin duniya.

A wanna lokacin masu bincike ba su iya tabbatar da iya shekarun mutanen da ake cewa Homo naledi ba, amma wasu halayyar da ba su gama cigaba ba, sun nuna cewa za su iya kai wa shekaru miliyan uku a duniya.

A wannan shekarar, shugaban masu binciken Lee Berger, ya fitar da sanarwar cewa kasusuwan shekarunsu tsakanin 200,000 zuwa 300,000 ne.

Sakamakon binciken ya nuna cewa, maimakon su kasance kakannin mutanen yanzu, ta yiwu Homo naledi sun yi kicibis da mutanen yanzu- Homo sapiens.

Kusufin rana

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images

Ranar 21 ga watan Augustan, wata babbar inuwar wata ta rufe Amurka, lamarin da ya janyo kusufin rana na farko tun lokacin da aka samar da kasar a shekarar 1776.

Na'urarku na da matsalar sauraren sauti
Kalla: yadda Amurka ta samu kalar zobe mai launin lu'u-lu'u

Kuma wani abu ne mai jan hankali.

Da yake bayar da rahoto daga garin Madras, na jihar Oregon, wakilin BBC, Pallab Ghosh ya ce: "Za ku iya ganin cewa karfe 10 da minti 15 na safe, amma yanayin ya yi kamar dare ne.

Saura dakika kadan rana ta kammala kusufi... ranar tana nan kamar wata fuska mai dariya a sama."

Bayan kusufin ya wuce, ya kara da cewa: "Na ji kamar ina mafarki ne."

Bako daga wata duniya

Hakkin mallakar hoto ESO/M. Kornmesser
Image caption Taswira: 'Oumuamua tana ficewa daga inda na'urar hangen nesa za ta iya ganinta

Duk da cewa masana kimiyya sun dade suna hasashen cewa wani dutse daga sararin samaniya zai ziyarci duniyarmu, shekarar 2017 ce karon farko da muka ga irin wannan dutsen.

Dutsen da wasu masana da suka yi amfani da wata babbar na'urar hangen nesa ta Hawaii a watan Oktoba, ba da jimawa ba ne suka gane cewa irin gudu da kuma hanyar da dutsen ke bi ya nuna cewa dutsen ya fito ne daga wata duniya ta daban.

An rada masa suna 'Oumuamua da ke nufin "dan sako mai zuwa cikin gaggawa daga wuri mai nisa" a harshen Hawaii, dutsen ya zama wani abu da masu na'urar hangen nesa suka yi ta neman kallo a fadin duniya.

A bangarori daban-daban ya kasance kamar sauran ababen da ake samu a wuri mafi nisa a sararin samaniyar duniyarmu- wurin da a ke kira Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) - kuma yana da wani ja a cikin launinsa lamarin da ya samu sakamakon hasken rana na miliyoyin shekaru.

Daya daga cikin abubuwan ba a cika gani ba game dutsen da ke yawo a sararin samaniya da ba cika sani ba ita ce siffarta.

Duk da cewa an cigaba da bincike game da dutsen, da alama tsawon 'Oumuamua ya kai fadinta sau 10, lamarin da ya sa ta zama abar da ta fi komai tsawo a cikin duniya da taurarinmu.

Babbar kankara

Hakkin mallakar hoto Copernicus Sentinel (2017) ESA/Andrew Flemming
Image caption Tauraron dan Adan na Turai mai suna Sentinel-1 ta tabbatar daballewar dutsen kankarar

Daya daga cikin dutsen kankara mafi girma da aka taba gani a duniya ya balle a yankin Larsen C na Antartica cikin watan Yuli.

Amma masana kimiyya sun dade suna bibiyar girman wani babban tsagu na kimanin shekaru 10.

An yi kiyasin cewa katafaren dutsen kankarar ya yi fadin kimanin murabba'in kilomita 6,000 - kimanin kashi daya cikin hudu na fadin birnin Wales.

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