Zamanin Buhariyya: Wa ya karya tattalin arzikin Najeriya?

Kudin Najeriya Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images

Farfado da tattalin arzikin kasa na cikin manyan abubuwa uku da Shugaba Muhammadu Buhari na Najeriya ya yi alkawarin bai wa fifiko a lokacin da yake yakin neman zabe a shekarar 2015.

Sai dai a shekara uku da ta gabata, tattalin arzikin Najeriyar ya fuskanci kalubale da dama, kama daga durkushewa, zuwa faduwar darajar naira da mummunar hauhawar farashi.

A ranar Litinin din makon jiya (9 ga watan Afrilun 2018) Shugaba Buhari ya bayyana aniyarsa ta sake tsayawa takara a zaben 2019 ke nan.

Alkaluma na baya-bayan nan da hukumar kididdiga ta Najeriya (wato National Bureau of Statistics ko NBS a takaice) ta fitar sun nuna cewa a watan Maris, kimar hauhawar farashin kayayyaki ta ragu a Najeriya idan aka kwatanta da watan Fabrairu, daga kashi 14.33 cikin 100 zuwa kashi 13.34 cikin 100.

Wannan ne kuma wata na 14 a jere da kimar hauhawar ke raguwa.

"Wannan raguwar, a karo na 14 a jere tun daga watan Janairun 2017, ta nuna hauhawar ta ragu da kashi 0.99 cikin dari idan aka kwatanta da watan Fabrairun bana", in ji NBS.

Hauhawar farashi a Najeriya

Daga watan Fabrairun 2016 ne dai kimar hauhawar ta fara tashin gwauron zabi (lokacin da ta tashi daga kashi 9.62 cikin dari a watan Janairu zuwa kashi 11.38 cikin dari) har ta kai matakin da aka yi shekara shida ba a kai makamancinsa ba a watan Janairun 2017, lokacin da ta kai kashi 18.72 cikin 100 (duba hoton da ke kasa).

Hauhawar farashi tashin gwauron zabi

Tun dai da farashin danyen man fetur ya fadi warwas a kasuwannin duniya - daga dala 115 ko wacce ganga a watan Yunin 2014 zuwa kasa da dala 35 ko wacce ganga a watan Fabrairun 2016 - tattalin arzikin Najeriyar ya shiga rudani.

Kasar ta dogara ne da danyen man fetur don samun akasarin kudin shigarta, lamarin da Shugaba Buhari ya sha alwashin sauyawa ta hanyar muhimmantar da wasu bangarorin tattalin arziki, musamman noma.

Faduwar farashin man dai ta jawo kasar ta rasa kudin shiga mai dimbin yawa, har ta kai wasu jihohi ma ba sa iya biyan albashin ma'aikata, sannan babban bankin kasar ya kasa samar da kudin musaya da kamfanoni ke bukata don shigo da kayan da za su sarrafa, daidaikun jama'a kuma suka kasa biya wa 'ya'yansu da ke karatu a kasashen waje kudin makaranta.

Tun da farashin mai ya fadi, wasu masana suka yi kira ga gwamnati da ta karyar da darajar Naira, amma Shugaba Buhari ya ce ba za ta yiwu ba, yana cewa shi bai ga amfanin yin hakan ga talakan Najeriya ba.

Ya kara jaddada wannan matsayi a watan Fabrairun 2016 a wajen wani taro a kan tattalin arzikin kasashen Afirka a Masar, inda ya ce, "Kasashen da suka ci gaba suna gasa a tsakaninsu ta hanyar karya darajar kudadensu, lamarin da ke taimaka musu ya habaka masana'antunsu su fitar da karin kaya zuwa waje.

"Amma mu ba abin da muke fitarwa; hasali ma komai shigo da shi muke yi hatta tsinken sakace. Don haka me zai sa mu karya farashin kudinmu?"

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Wasu dai na ganin wannan matsayi na Shugaba Buhari ya kara jefa tattalin arzikin cikin matsala.

A karshe dai Babban Bankin Najeriya, wato CBN, ya dan saki marar Naira a watan Yunin 2016, bayan ya yi kusan wata 16 yana ayyana farashin a kan N197 ko wacce dala.

Wannan matakin ya sa darajar Naira ta fadi da kashi 40 cikin dari nan take. Zuwa karshen shekara kuwa darajar kudin na Najeriya ta fadi da kashi 87 cikin 100.

Bayan haka, Kasuwar Hannayen Jari ta Najeriyar ta tafka asarar da aka jima ba a ga irinta ba, inda a rubu'i na farkon 2016 ta yi asarar sama da Naira tiriliyan daya.

Haka dai tattalin arzikin Najeriya ya yi ta dingisawa har dai a watan Agustan 2016 Hukumar NBS ta bayar da sanarwa cewa, a hukumance, ya durkushe.

Ko da yake hukumomi sun dora alhakin faruwar haka a kan faduwar farashin danyen mai da gazawar gwamnatin da ta gabata wajen daukar matakin ko ta kwana don kare kasar, da ma almubazzaranci da dukiyar kasa, wasu masana tattalin arziki cewa suka yi idan bera na da sata, to daddawa ma na da wari.

A ganinsu, a maimakon gwamnatin ta yi abin da ya dace don a kalla taka wa kasar birki yayin da ta gangara za ta fada ramin karayar tattalin arziki, angiza ta ma hukumaomi suka yi.

Misis Oby Ezekwesili, wadda tsohuwar mataimakiyar shugaban Bankin Duniya ce, na cikin masu wannan ra'ayi, kuma a wata hira da BBC kwanan baya ta bayyana cewa:

"Alal misali, gwamnati ta aiwatar da wasu manufofin tattalin arziki wadanda ba su dace ba a shekarun 2015 da 2016. Me kuma ka ke tunanin hakan ya haifar?

"Ya kara dagula matsalar tattalin arzikin da gwamnatin ta gada. Ta kara dagula al'amura ta yadda kimar hauhawar farashi ta yi tashin gwauron zabi. Karuwar kimar hauhawar farashin kuma ta kashe talaka murus.

"Sai yanzu ne suke kokarin su daidaita manufofinsu na tattalin arziki, amma duk da haka, sun bar wata kafa da wasu mutane kalilan ke amfani da ita don arzuta kansu, ba tare da sauran al'umma sun amfana ba".

Ita ma jam'iyyar PDP wadda aka kada ita a zaben da ya gabata, ta sha musanta zargin cewa ta illata tattalin arzikin kasar tana zargin gwamnatin APC da kasa rike amanar 'yan Najeriya da aka danka mata.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images

A yanzu dai hukumomin Najeriyar na kafa hujja da raguwar kimar hauhawar farashi da kuma ficewar kasar daga halin ni-'ya-sun da ta shiga na koma-bayan tattalin arziki don nuna cewa manufofin gwamnati na aiki.

A watan Satumba na 2017 ne dai hukumar NBS ta sanar da cewa kasar ta fice daga yanayin koma-bayan tattalin arziki.

A ganinsu gwamnatin ta taka rawar gani wajen karfafa wasu bangarori na tattalin arziki, da yaye kasar daga dogaron da ta yi a kan danyen man fetur.

A cewar Malam Garba Shehu, daya daga cikin masu magana da yawun Shugaba Muhammadu Buhari:

"{Tun} bayan fitar mu daga wannan mawuyacin hali da tattalin arzikinmu ya shiga, kusan {a} ko wanne bangare na tattalin arzki ana ganin karuwa.

"Yanzu kamar bangaren hakar ma'adinai, a shekarar da ta wuce an samu karuwar kashi 7 cikin dari; idan ka duba harkar noma, {ita} ma an karuwar kashi 7 cikin dari.

"Yanzu da nake maka magana kashi 90 zuwa 95 cikin dari na shinkafar da muke shigowa da ita an jingine ta - mu muke noma ta..."

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Najeriya kasa ce mai dumbin jama'a da albarkatun kasa

Ya kuma kwatanta tattalin arzikin Najeriya da wata budurwa mai farin jini, yana mai cewa, "Kasashen duniya da yawa suna ta turo jari ana ta zubawa...

"Ka san cewa bankin duniya a 'yan kwanakin nan ai har wani sakamako suka ba da na wani bincike cewa yanzu fa Najeriya tana cikin kashi 10 cikin dari na kasashen duniya da suka fi gyara da ci gaban tattalin arziki".

Manufofin tattalin arzikin da gwamnatin Buhari ke aiwatarwa a yanzu dai na cikin wani kundi ne na tsare-tsaren farfadowa da bunkasa tattalin arziki daga shekarar 2017 zuwa 2020 wanda aka kaddamar a watan Afrilun bara.

Sai dai kuma yayin da gwamnatin ke bayyana ci gaban da ka samu zuwa yanzu, wasu bangarori na al'ummar Najeriya cewa suke har yanzu fa ba su gani a kas ba.

Wasu daga cikin muhimman abubuwan da suka faru da tattalin arzikin Najeriya a shekara uku da suka wuce

  • Mayu 2015: Shugaba Muhammadu Buhari ya sha rantsuwar kama aiki
  • Fabrairu 2016: Farashin danyen man fetur ya fadi warwas zuwa kasa da $35 daga $115 a watan Yunin 2014
  • Fabrairu 2016: Kimar hauhawar farashi ta yi tashin gwauron zabi zuwa kashi 11.38 cikin dari daga kashi 9.62 cikin dari a watan Janairu
  • Afrilu 2016: A rubu'i na farko na 2016 kasuwar hannayen jari ta Najeriya ta yi asarar sama da tiriliyan daya na Naira. Zuwa karshen shekarar kuma jimillar abin da ta yi asara ya tashi naira biliyan 604.
  • Yuni 2016: CBN ya karyar da darajar Naira
  • Agusta 2016: Tattalin Arzikin Najeriya ya durkushe a hukumance
  • Satumba 2017: Tattalin arzikin Najeriya ya farfado