Shin na'urar 'card reader' za ta yi tasiri a zaben 2019?

Daga Kabiru Saidu Dakata, Babban Daraktan Cibiyar Wayar da kan Al`umma akan Shugabanci na gari da Tabbatar da Adalci (CAJA)

card reader Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images

An dade ana kuka a kan rashin sahihancin zabbubuka a Najeriya, hakan ya sa a wasu lokuta ko su 'yan siyasar da suka yi nasara a zabubbukan ba sa iya bugun kirjin cewa zaben da ya kawo su ga nasara ingantacce ne.

Misali, marigayi tsohon shugaban kasar Najeriya Malam Umar Musa Yar`adua ya fada a shekara ta 2007 cewar zaben da ya tabbatar da shi a shugabancin kasar ba sahihi ba ne, inda ya kuma lashi takobin yin duk mai yiwuwa domin ganin ya gyara tsarin gudanar da zabe a Najeriya.

Domin cika wannan alkawari, a ranar 28 ga Agustan 2007 Shugaba Yar`adua ya kafa wani kwamitin gyaran zaben Najeriya mai mambobi 22 a karkashi jagorancin tsohon babban jojin kasa Lawal Uwais.

Mambobin kwamitin dai sun fito ne daga bangarori daban-daban kamar irin su Farfesa Attahiru Jega wanda malamin Jami`a ne da Dr. Jibrin Ibrhim daga kungiyoyin kishin al`umma, da dai sauransu.

Kwamitin ya kammala wannan aiki tare da fito da shawarwari daban-daban, an kuma mikawa gwamnati rahoton a watan Disamba na shekara 2008.

Bayan rasuwar shugaba 'Yar'adua, shi ma shugaba Goodluck Jonatan ya ci gaba da lalubo hanyoyin da za a inganta al'amuran zabubbuka a Najeria, inda a watan Yuni na 2010 Ya nada Farfesa Attahiru Jega a matsayin shugaban hukumar zaben Najeriya tare da alkawarin cewar zai bai wa shi Farfesa Jega kowa ce irin dama domin yin nasara a wannan aikin.

Farfesa Jega ya yi yinkurin kawo sauye-sauye tun a zaben 2011, misali, shigo da 'yan bautar kasa a masayin ma`aikatan zabe.

Da shigo da shehunnan malaman jami`oi a matsayin masu tattara sakamakon zabuka.

Amma dai gabatar da na`urar tantance ma su zabe ta 'Card Reader' da aka yi amfani da ita a zaben 2015 shi ne ya zama wani zakaran gwajin dafi a irin sababbin manufofin da suka banbanta zaben 2015 da wadanda suka gabace shi.

Tasirin na'urar tantance masu zabe ga ingancin zabe a Najeriya

An fara amfani da na`urar tantance masu zabe a Najeriya ne a 2015, hakan kuwa ba zai rasa nasaba da yadda aka tabbatar da tasirin na'urar a zabbukan wasu kasashen duniya ciki kuwa har da kasashen Afirka.

Misali, da yawa daga cikinmu da muka sa ido a zaben shugaban kasa da aka gudanar a kasar Ghana a 2012, mun ga yadda na'urar ta taimaka wajen dakile duk wani yunkurin magudi a zaben.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption A zaben 2015 an dauki tsawon lokaci na'urar card reader ba ta karbi hannun Shugaba Jonathan na lokacin ba

Da yawa daga 'yan Najeriya sun tafka mahawara dangane da cancanta ko akasin haka na dacewar a yi amfani da wannan na'ura.

Masu ganin rashin dacewar dai na kafa hujja ne da rashin tsayayyar wutar lantarki, rashin tabbas ga ita kanta na'urar, ranshin kwararrun da za su sarrafa ta da rashin dokar da ta ba da damar a yi amfani da ita, da dai sauransu.

Amma dai hukumar zaben Najeriya ta ce ta ji ta gani ta shirya amfani da wannan na'ura.

Domin gudun kada a sami matsala da na'urar a ranar zabe sai da hukumar zabe ta gabatar da zabe na gwaji a ranar watan Maris din 2015 a runfuna 225 daga cikin rufunan zabe 120,000 da ake da su a Najeriya, an kuma gudanar da zaben gwajin ne a mazabu 12 daga jahohi 12 na kasar.

Duk da nasarar da hukumar zabe ta yi ikirarin samu a ranar gwajin, amma aikin gwajin ya gamu da matsaloli kamar yadda muka gani a wasu daga cikin runfunan zabe 54 da aka gudanar da aikin gwajin a mazabar Danmaliki da ke karamar hukumar Kumbotson jihar Kano.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Na'urar ta kuma ta kin karbar hannun mata masu lalle

Matsalolin sun hada da rashin karbar yatsun masu zabe sakamakon kaushin yatsu musamman ga manoma, ko kuma lalle daga bangaren mata wanda sai da aka yi amfani da sinadarin sifirit da audiga domin goge yatsun masu zaben.

Akwai kuma matsalar kasa gane hoton da ke kan rejista da rashin rike caji ga ita na'urar, da dai sauransu.

Sakamakon gwajin dai ya sa hukumar zabe kara tashi tsaye domin magance matsalolin da aka samu yayin aikin gwajin, domin kaucewa cin karo da su a ranar babban zabe.

Yadda na'ura ta taimaka a zaben 2015

Hukumar zabe ta kasa ta yi amfani da na'urar tantance masu zabe a dukkanin zabubbukan da ta gabatar a 2015 a matsayin wata sabuwar hanyar magance magudin zabe a kasar.

Na'urar ta taimaka ta hanyoyi kamar haka:

  • Tantance katinan masu zabe: daya daga cikin ayyukan da hukumar zabe ta gabatar a lokacin da ta ware na tantancewa (accreditation) wato karfe 8 na safe zuwa 12 na rana.
  • Tantance yatsun masu zabe: bayan an tantance ingancin katinan masu zabe sai kuma a tantance yatsunsu domin a tabbatar da cewar mai dauke da wannan katin shi ne ko ita ce ke da wannan katin.
  • Kididdige adadin wadanda aka tantance: da zarar an tantance katina da yatsun masu zabe, na'urar za ta saka a cikin kididdigar adadin wadanda ta tantance.
  • Daidaita adadin masu zabe da aka tantance da kuma sakamakon zabe: dole ne ya kasance ko dai adadin wadanda a ka tantance ya yi dadai da wadanda suka kada kuri'a, ko kuma wadanda aka tantance su zarta masu kada kuri'a saboda an samu a wasu wuraren cewar wasu ba su dawo sun yi zaben ba bayan kuma an tantance su, amma idan aka samu cewar masu zabe sun fi wadanda aka tantance yawa, ita hukumar zabe ta soke zaben wannan rumfar zaben.

Yadda na'urar ta bada matsala a zaben 2015

Duk da yadda ake ganin na'urar tantance masu zabe ta taimaka a zaben 2015, babu shakka ta kuma bayar da wasu matsaloli a lokutan da ake kudanar da zaben. Wasu daga cikin matsalolin sun hada da:

  • Kasa shaida yatsun masu zabe: an samu matsalar kasa shaida yantsun masu zabe daga na`urar kad rida a mafi yawancin runfunan zabe a zaben shugaban kasa na 2015. Misali, ko shugaban kasa na wanan lokaci wanda kuma shi ne dan takarar jam`iyar PDP wato Goodluck Jonathan sau biyar na`urar tana kasa shaida yatsunsa, wanda a karshe sai dai ya yi amfani da fom na musamman (incident form) da aka tanada sabo da irin wannan matsalar.
  • Tutsun na'ura: ita kanta na'urar ta yi ta yin tutsu a yayin gudanar da tantancewar inda a wasu wuraren na'urar ta ki yin aiki kwata-kwata har sai da hukumar zabe ta kawo madadinsu.
  • Tsaiko kafin tantancewa: an kuma gamu da matsalar tsaiko kafin tantancewar sakamakon kodai nau`rar ta kasa ganin hotunan masu zabe ko kuma ta kasa shaida lambobin amfani da it (password), ko karewar batir, da dai sauransu.

Cigaba da inganta hanyoyin amfani da na'urar daga hukumar zabe

Bayan ganin alfanun amfani da na'urar zabe duk da kuwa irin matsalolin da aka fuskanta, hukumar zabe ta ci gaba da lalibo hanyoyi domin inganta amfanin da na`urar a lokutan zabuka a Najeriya.

Wannan yunkurin dai ya fara fitowa fili ne tun a zaben gwamnonin da aka gabatar a watan Afrilun 2015 inda mafi yawancin matsalolin da aka ci karo da su a zaben shugaban kasa a watan Maris ba a same su ba yayin zaben gwamnonin.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Farfesa Jega ne ya fara kirkiro amfani da na'urar a Najeriya

Haka ma hukumar zaben ta hade lokacin tantancewa da kuma lokacin kada kuri`a, wanda kamar yadda muka gani a yayin sanya ido a zaben gwamnan jihar Osun da ya gudana a watan Agusta da Nuwamba na 2018, an gudanar da tantace masu zabe da kuma kada kuri'a ne a lokaci daya sabanin yadda aka gudanar a zabukan 2015 inda aka gudanar da tantancewa tsakanin karfe 8 na safe zuwa 12 na rana, aka kuma fara kada kuri`a daga 12 na rana zuwa karfe 3 na yamma.

Hukumar zaben ta kuma tabbatar da cewar ta kara inganta na'urar domin tunkarar zabukan 2019 ta yadda za a gujewa dukkan matsalolin da aka fuskanta a baya.

Saboda hakama hukumar ta ce a wannan karon ba za ta yi amfani da fom na musamman ba ma`ana incident form da aka yi amfani da shi a 2015.

Karkarewa

Hakkin mallakar hoto Kabir Dakata Facebook
Image caption Daga Kabiru Saidu Dakata, Babban Daraktan Cibiyar Wayar da kan Al`umma akan Shugabanci na gari da Tabbatar da Adalci (CAJA)

Babu shakka za a yi cewa amfani da na'urar ta taimaka wajen tsaftace zabubbukan Najeriya musamman ta hanyar rage aringizon kuri'u wanda a zabubbukan baya ake zargin cewar ba na gaskiya ba ne.

Misali, sakamakon zaben shugaban kasa na 2011 da ba a yi amfani da na'urar ba ya nuna cewar an kada kuri'u kimanin 39,469,484 (53.7%) daga cikin mutane sama da miliyan 73 da aka ce sun yi rijista a wannan zaben.

Amma a 2015 da aka yi amfani da na'urar sai aka samu cewar an kada kuri'u 29,432,083 (43.65%) daga cikin mutane 67,422,005 da suka yi rijista a wannan zaben.

Don haka, matukar hukumar zabe da gaske take kan ikirarinta na kara inganta hanyoyin amfani da na'urar tantance masu zabe a 2019, to akwai kyakkyawan zaton cewar zaben na 2019 zai zama karbabbe ga 'yan Najeriya da ma duniya baki daya.

Haka suma sauran masu ruwa da tsaki musamman majalisar kasa da bankaren zartarwa, ya kamata su samar da dokin da za su taimaka wajen dauwamar amfani da na'urar a zabukan Najeriya.