Me ya sa sojoji ke ci gaba da karbe iko a nahiyar Afirka?

Soldiers in Sudan Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images

Sojoji sun yi wa Shugaban kasar Sudan Omar al-Bashir juyin mulki, sakamakon zanga-zangar nuna adawa da mulkinsa da ta mamaye titunan kasar.

Rundunar sojan kasar ta yi alkawarin gudanar da harkokin mulkin na tsawon shekara biyu, inda daga bisani za ta gudanar da zabe.

Shugaban kasar Sudan Omar al-Bashir ya kama ragamar mulkin kasar ne bayan wani juyin mulkin da aka yi cikin shekarar 1989, kodayake kafin juyin mulkin an sha yin yunkuri da dama, wasu sun yi nasara, wasu kuwa hakarsu ba ta cimma ruwa ba.

An gudanar da cikakken bincike ne kan tarihin juyin mulkin soja a kasar Sudan, tare da nau'ukansa a daukacin fadin Afirka

Sudan ta yi fama da yawan yunkurin juyin mulki fiye da kowace kasa a Afirka

Daukacin juyin mulkin da ya hada da na baya-bayan nan, an yi a kalla yunkuri sau 15 - hudu ne kawai suka samu nasara.

Yanzu haka dai rundunar soja ta samu nasarar hambarar da Omar al-Bashir, za a iya cewa wannan shi ne karo na biyar.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Jama'a sun yi murna a fili bayan da sojoji suka taimaka wajen sauke Mugabe a 2017

Mene ne juyin mulki?

Tun cikin shekarun 1950, an yi yunkurin juyin mulkin da yawansu ya kai 206 a fadin Afirka, kamar yadda wasu masanan kimiyyar siyasa 'yan Amurka biyu suka tattara bayanai akai, wato masanan su ne, Jonathan Powell and Clayton Thyne.

Ma'anar juyin mulki shi ne wani yunkuri da ya sabawa doka da sojoji ko kuma jami'an farar hula ke yi domin hambarar da gwamnati mai ci.

Sai dai ma'anar juyin mulki an sha yin takaddama a kanta, ta yadda a da can, shugabannin soja suka musanta cewa suna aiwatar da lamarin.

Alal misali, kasar Zimbabwe a shekarar 2017 sojojin kasar sun yi juyin mulkin da ya kawo karshen mulkin Robert Mugabe na shekaru 37. A lokacin, wani babban jami'in soja Manjo-Janar Sibusiso Moyo, ya shiga talabijin, inda ya karyata juyin mulkin sojan.

"Shugabannin juyin mulki kusan koda yaushe sukan karyata aiwatar da juyin mulkin a kashin kansu a kokarinsu na ganin cewa sun samu amincewar doka, "in ji Powell.

Powell da Thyne sun yi nuni da cewa juyin mulkin da ya samu nasara, shi ne, wanda ya kama ragamar mulki tsawon lokacin da ya zarta kwanaki bakwai.

In an cire dayan nan, wanda aka gudanar a Sudan, an yi yunkurin juyin mulki har sau 105, wadanda ba su samu nasara ba a fadin Afirka da kuma guda 100 da suka kai ga gacin nasara.

Kasar Burkina Faso da ke Afirka ta Yamma ita ke da yawan juyin mulkin da suka kai ga nasara, inda adadinsu ya kai bakwai.

Shin Afirka na da karancin juyin mulkin soja?

Tabbas Afirka ta yi fama da dimbin juyin mulkin soja, amma hakika irin wannan tursasawar ta kawo sauyi na matukar raguwa.

Cikin shekaru arba'in, wato tsakanin shekarun 1960 zuwa 2000, yawan yunkurin juyin mulki yana nan daram kan turbarsa na akalla 40 cikin shekaru goma.

Tun daga wancan lokacin an yi matukar samun raguwar lamarin.

A shekarun 2000 an yi yunkurin juyin mulki da yawansu ya kai 22, kuma a daidai ma'aunin shekaru goman da ake kai yawan juyin mulki ya tsaya ne akan 17.

"Kasashen Afirka sun yi fama da yanayin da ke bayar da kafar yin juyin mulki, al'amuran da suka hada da talauci da matsalar tattalin arziki. Da zarar kasa ta yi fama da juyin mulki sau daya, to tamkar ya zama manuniya ce da ke bayar da tabbacin aukuwar wasu da dama.''

Tarihi ya nuna cewa a kasashen Afirka, rundunar soja na taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen mika mulki, tare da tunkarar matsalolin cikin gida da harkokin tsaro.

A fadin duniya

Yawan yunkurin juyin mulkin da aka yi a daukacin fadin duniya, tun daga shekarar 1952 yawansa ya kai 476

Afirka ta yi fama da juyin mulki fiye da kowace nahiya.

Mai biye mata ita ce nahiyar Kudancin Amurka, wadda aka yi mata yunkurin juyin mulki 95, kuma 40 daga cikinsu sun kai ga nasara.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Zanga-zanga a Venezuela a wani yunkuri na hambarar da gwamnatin marigayi Shugaba Chavez

Cikin shekaru ashirin da suka gabata an samu raguwar yawan juyin mulki a nahiyar Kudancin Amurka. Na karshensu dai shi ne wanda aka yi a kasar Venezuela cikin shekarar 2002, don kawar da Shugaba Hugo Chavez, amma bai samu nasara ba.

Powell ya ce kawo karshen yakin cacar baki, al'amarin da ya bayar da kafa ga Amurka da Tarayyar Sobiyat suka rika yin katsalandan a harkokin nahiyar Amurka ta Latin (Ko Kudancin), tare da aniyar hukumomin duniya na kakaba takunkumi ga kasashen da suka yi juyin mulki, kamar Haiti a shekarar 1994, shi ya haifar da raguwar juyin mulkin soja.

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