Yadda Indiya ke shirya zabe ga kashi 12% na jama'ar duniya

Mutum kusan miliyan 900 ke da damar jefa kuri'a a zaben
Image caption Masu jefa kuri'a kusan miliyan 900 ne ake sa ran za su yi zaben.

Shekara sama da 10 babu wani abin da ya canza.

A lokacin kowanne zabe jam'ian zaben kan tafi wurare masu nisa domin bai wa jama'a damar kada kuri'unsu.

Mutum biyar ne tare da rakiyar 'yan sanda guda biyu rike da kayayyakin zabe, wadanda suka hada da na'urar jefa kuri'a.

Bayan tafiyar tsawon lokaci, sun kafa rumfar zabe ga wani mutum mai suna Guru Bharatdas Darshandas mai fadin kilomita 2 daga gidansa, kamar yadda doka ta tanada.

Mutumin mai shekara 60 da doriya yana kula da wani wajen bauta ne a cikin daji da ke yammacin jihar Gujarat.

"A da akwai mutum 45 a wannan wajen bautar, kuma mukan samu masu ziyara da yawa kafin daga bisani mahukunta su canza tsari, abin da ya sa zama a wajen ya yi tsauri. Saboda haka duk suka tafi, a masu jefa kuri'a ni kadai na rage," ya shaida wa BBC.

Soutik Biswas/BBC
I feel honoured that the authorities set up a polling booth just for my vote.
Bharatdas Darshandas
Solitary voter, Banej polling station

Yana fatan a samu tituna masu kyau a cikin daji don a samu masu ziyara da yawa.

"Amma na ji dadin yadda jami'ai suka zo domin ba ni damar kada kuri'ata. Na ji dadi sosai."

Labarin Bharatdas yana nuna yadda zaben Indiya ke da matukar wuyar shiryawa, amma wannan kadan ne daga ciki.

Daga Himalayas zuwa gabar ruwa

Indiyawa za su shiga zabe a watan Afrilun nan, inda mutum miliyan 900 za su kada kuri'a, wanda kuma shi ne mafi girma a duniya baki daya.

Amma ta yaya kasar za ta iya shirya zabe ga kashi 12% na mutanen duniya baki daya? Tare da niyyar yin zaben adalci ga kowa, kamar yadda hukumnar zaben ta bayyana.

Hukumar zaben za ta gudanar da zaben ne a jihohi 29 da kuma yankuna bakwai.

Wannan ya hada da "wani babban tsauni a arewaci (yankin Himalayas), manyan yankuna a bangaren arewaci da kuma tsakiya, ga kuma sahara daga yamma, dazuzzuka da kuma ruwa da ya kewaye zirin daga kudu," kamar yadda wani tsohon jam'in hukumar ya rubuta a littafinsa 'An Undocumented Wonder: The Making Of The Great Indian Election'.

Rumfar zabe kusan miliyan daya aka kafa domin gudanar da zaben, wasu daga cikinsu kuma suna bukatar shiri na musamman.

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Officials carry oxygen cylinders, sleeping bags, and food along with the voting machines to reach some of the highest polling stations.

Ga misali, wata rumfar zabe da ke a Himachal Pradesh ana ganin ita ce mafi wahalar riskarwa, saboda tana kan tudu mai tsawon mita 4,440.

Jam'iyyu da jam'ian zabe sai sun yi tafiya a kasa ta tsawon kilomita 20 kafin su cimma masu kada kuri'a, in ji wata kafar yada labarai a kasar.

Sukan dauki tukunyar shakar iska ta Oxygen, gadon bacci, kayan abinci, cocila da kuma sauran kayayyakin zabe.

Jirage masu saukar angulu da kuma rakuma

Ana matukar kokari wajen isa ga masu jefa kuri'a.

"Abin mamaki ne ka ji an ce ana amfani da dukkanin ababen sufuri wajen isar da kayayyakin zabe irinsu giwaye, rakuma, jiragen ruwa, kekuna, jiragen kasa da na sama don kai kayan zabe ga sahara, manyan tsaunuka, dazuka da kuma gabar ruwa," kamar yadda Quraishi ya rubuta.

Dole ne a kai wa kowanne mai kada kuri'a kayan zabe.

Image caption Wajibi ne a kai wa kowanne mai kada kuri'a kayan zabe, a rakumi ko a jirgin sama

Mutum kusan miliyan 10 ne za su kula da yadda zaben zai gudana a wannan karon, kwatankwacin kusan yawan mutanen kasar Sweden ke nan!

Sun hada da fareti daga jami'an tsaro, masu sa-ido, masu daukar hoton bididyo, ma'ailkatan gwamnati, malamai da kuma jam'ian zaben.

An raba masu wuraren aiki ne ta hanyar kacici-kacici don gudun kada a yi son-kai.

Amma dukkaninsu sun samu horon tunkarar yanayin jama'ar kowacce jiha.

Daga rikicin zabe zuwa zaben boge

Jami'an zabe da suke aiki a rumfunan zaben na da kwarewa wajen tunkarar abubuwan masu sarkakiya.

Jihar Bihar da ke arewacin kasar na da tarihin sa-ido kan kuri'u, saboda wasu, magoya baya kan dangwala kuri'un boge ga jam'iyyarsu a kan sunayen masu jefa kuri'a.

Hakan yana hana masu zabe fitowa musamman mata, duk da cewa abin ya ragu yanzu saboda samuwar na'urar jefa kuri'a ta EVMs.

Hukumar zaben kasar tana rarraba lokutan gudanar da zabe har zuwa shida ko bakwai.

Hakan yana ba su damar kai jam'i'an tsaro zuwa wuraren da ake kada kuri'a.

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The number of officials deployed to manage the election is nearly equal to the population of Sweden.

Akwai kuma maganar zaben boge a jihar Manipur, wadda aka dakilke ta hanyar amfani da wata manhaja mai fahimtar fuskar mutane.

Bayan da aka fara amfani da manhaja "an gano wata mata da ta zo jefa kuri'a a karo na 60", kamar yadda Quraishi ya rubuta a littafinsa.

Duk da haka, an samu rahotonnin rikicin zabe a zaben shekarar 2014.

Jihohin Kashmir, Jharkhand da Assam su ne abin ya fi shafa.

Yanzu jami'an tsaro na kokarin kauce wa aukuwar irin wannan rikici a wannan karo.

A jihar Jharkhand da ke gabashi sai da aka cire abubuwan fashewa da daga kan hanya da wata kungiyar 'yan adawa masu dauke da makamai suka saka kafin a isa ga masu zabe.

A jihar Assam an tsaurara matakan tsaro a rumfunan zaben da ake jin za a iya samun rikici ko kuma fadan kabilanci.

Lokutan zabe da kuma alamu

A wannan karon za a yi zaben ne a cikin makonni shida, inda dubban 'yan takara za su yi takara a mazabu 543.

"Mun fara shiri tun shekara guda kafin zaben," wani tsohon kwamishinan zabe T S Krishnamurthy ya gaya wa BBC.

"Amma ban da yin rajistar masu zabe domin wannan abin da ake yi ne yau da gobe."

A irin wannan aikin rajistar ne aka gano mai zaben da ya fi kowanne dadewa a Indiya mai suna Shyam Saran Negi.

Malamin makarantar wanda ya yi ritaya, ya kada kuri'a a kowanne zabe tun shekararar 1951.

Mai shekara 102, a wannan zaben ma ana sa ran zai kada kuri'arsa a jihar Himachal Pradesh.

Indian voter Shyam Saran Negi (C), 100, arrives to vote in the state elections in 2017.
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Shyam Saran Negi is said to have voted in every general election since 1951.

Akwai abubuwan da ake gudanarwa kafin fara zaben:

  • Karba da kuma saita na'urar jefa kuri'a (EVMs) a fadin kasa baki daya.
  • Sanya lokacin gudanar da zaben tare da la'akarin cewa bai fado a lokacin wasu bukukuwa ba a kowanne yankin kasar, ko kuma lokacin jarraba a makarantu, ko lokacin damina da kuma lokacin yanayin zafin rana.
  • Yin safarar tan-tan na tawada wadda ake saka wa mutane a hannu bayan kada kuri'a domin guje wa jefa kuri'a sau biyu.
  • Saka alamun jam'iyyu da kuma manna alamar 'yan takarar indifenda (masu zaman kansu) domin masu zabe su rarrabe da su.

A shekarun 1990 dan takarar da yake jikin wata alama zai zauna da shi da jama'arsa su tattauna a kan alamomi kamar burushin wanke baki, wayar tarho, teburi sannan su zabi daya kuma su zana shi, sai su yi amfani da shi a matsayin alamar da za a gane su da ita.

Image caption Ana saka wa jam'iyyu alamun yau-da-kullum wadanda kowanne mai zabe zai iya tantancewa

An fara amfani da wadannan alamu ne tun a babban zaben kasar na farko a shekarar 1951, wanda a lokacin kashi 84% na masu zaben ba su iya karatu da rubutu ba.

Da dama daga cikinsu an daina amfani da su yanzu amma har yanzu wasu na nan.

Wadannan ayyukan da ma wasu suna cikin ayyukan hukumar zaben kasar gabanin kowanne babban zabe a Indiya.

Daga shirye-shirye zuwa dokoki

"Shirye-shirye ba shi ne matsalar ba," Krishnamurthy ya ce. "Tsara dokoki ga jam'iyyu ne babbar matsalar."

Sayan kuri'u da kudi ko kuma bayar da kyaututtuka sanannen abu ne a Indiya.

Karin dalili shi ne, siyasar tana kara zafi.

Akwai jam'iyyu 464 a zaben 2014, wanda guda 55 ne kawai a babban zaben farko.

Akwai kuma damuwa kan yadda jam'iyyu ke samun kudaden kamfe ta hanyar da ba ta dace ba.

"Mukan kama jam'iyyu da lefin karya doka, amma ba mu da damar hana su shiga zaben, sai dai kawai mu cire alamunsu a wasu lokutan idan abin ya yi kamari," in ji Krishnamurthy.

Former Chief Election Commissioner S Y Quraishi announcing the dates for the Assembly elections in 2011.
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All modes of transportation from the primitive to ultra-modern—elephants, camels, boats, cycles, helicopters, trains and airplanes—are used to reach voters.
S. Y. Quraishi
Former Chief Election Commissioner of India

Domin a tabbatar da adalci wajen kirgen kuri'u, jami'an zabe kan gudanar da zaben gwaji kafin a fara zaben.

Sai dai lokaci zuwa lokaci a kan samu korafe-korafe kan na'urorin zaben.

Jam'iyyun da suka yi rashin nasara kan yi zargin an yi wa na'urar kutse tare da yin magudi.

Hukumar zabe kan hakikance cewa ba za a iya yin kutse ga na'urorin ba sannan kuma idan aka nemi yi masu katsalandan nan take za a gane.

A yanzu haka suna kokarin tabbatar da komai yana kan ka'ida a fadin kasa baki daya.

A jihar Telangana da ke kudancin kasar ana fama da matsalar dandazon 'yan takara kan kujera daya.

Tsohuwar na'urar EVM ka iya daukar sunayen 'yan takara 64 ne kawai, yanzu kuwa akwai 'yan takara 185.

Saboda haka an yi bayar da umarnin safarar wasu na'urorin na zamani a kan lokaci.

Hukumomi sun ce suna da kwarin gwiwa kan yiwuwar hakan.

"Za a yi zaben cikin natsuwa," in ji wani mataimakin kwamishinan zabe Umesh Sinha.

Bari ma dai, yana ganin cewa jihar ta Telangana tana kokarin kafa tarihi ne.

"Telangana za ta zama jiha ta farko da za ta yi zabe a rumfuna masu yawa tun bayan da aka fara amfani da na'urar EVM."

Amma shin wadannan aikace-aikace za su sa a samu fitowar masu zabe da yawa? Ko kuma a samu zabe mai inganci?

Duniya za ta jira zuwa 23 ga watan Mayu domin samun tabbaci.

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