Ranar Maleriya ta Duniya: Yaya za mu dakatar da cutar?

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Image caption Ana kamuwa da cutar mleriya ne ta hanya cizon sauro

Yaya za mu dakatar da cutar maleriya?

Wannan cuta ta zazzabin cizon sauro wadda ana iya kare ta kuma a warke idan an kamu har yanzu tana daga cikin cutuka masu kashe dumbin mutane.

A duk minti biyu tana kashe yaro guda kuma a duk shekara ana ba da rahoton fiye da mutum miliyan 200 sun sake kamuwa da cutar zazzabin cizon sauro, a cewar alkaluman Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya.

An ga ci gaba ba kakkautawa cikin shekara goman da ta gabata wajen yaki da cutar maleriya, amma a shekara ta 2015 sai ci gaban ya lafa: wani rahoto na baya-bayan nan kan cutar maleriya a duniya (da aka fitar a 2018) ya nuna cewa ba a samu kwakkwarar raguwa ba cikin adadin mutanen da ke kamuwa da zazzabin maleriya daga 2015 zuwa 2017.

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Albarkacin Ranar Maleriya ta Duniya 25 ga watan Afrilu, ga abin da kake bukatar ka sani game da wannan cuta:

  • Maleriya cuta ce da ke barazana ga rayuka wadda wasu nau'o'in kwayar cuta hudu ke yadawa.
  • Mutane na kamuwa da kwayar cutar ta hanyar cizon tamatar sauro.
  • Ana iya kare kai daga kamuwa kuma ana warkewa.
  • A shekarar 2017, an kiyasta samun mutum miliyan 219 da suka kamu da maleriya a cikin kasashe guda 87 (alkaluman Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya).
  • Kuma an yi kiyasin mutuwar mutum 435,000 sakamakon maleriya a 2017.
  • Afirka ce ta fi fama da yawan masu kamuwa da maleriya a fadin duniya - a 2017, nahiyar ta yi fama da kashi 92% na masu fama da maleriya da kuma kashi 93% na mace-macen maleriya.
  • Yawan kudin da ake samarwa don takaitawa da dakile cutar maleriya ya kai kiyasin $3.1bn a 2017.

Alamomi

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Image caption Zafin jiki da jin sanyi da ciwon kai su ne alamun farko na cutar maleriya

Zazzabi mai zafi, ciwon kai, jin sanyi - galibi yakan bayyana tsawon kwana 10 -15 bayan cizon sauro mai yada cutar.

Wadannan ba su da tsanani don haka da wuya a cewa alamomin maleriya ne, sai dai idan an ba wa mutum a cikin sa'a 24, kwayar cutar maleriya nau'in P. falciparum na iya tsananta zuwa mummunar cuta, kuma har takan haddasa mutuwa.

Su wane ne suka fi kasadar kamuwa?

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A 2017, kusan rabin al'ummar duniya ne suka auka cikin kasadar cutar maleriya.

Kananan yara 'yan kasa da shekara biyar sun fi zama cikin rukunin mutanen da suka fi saurin kamuwa: a 2017, su ne ke da adadin kashi 61% (266,000) na dukkan mace-macen da aka samu sakamakon cutar maleriya a fadin duniya.

Ana kuma jin cewa sauran rukunin al'umma kamar mata masu juna biyu da mutane masu rarraunar garkuwar jiki na fuskantar gagarumar kasadar kamuwa da cutar maleriya.

Wadanne yankuna ne cutar ta fi tsanani?

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Image caption Cutar ta fi yaduwa a Afirka

A cewar alkaluman Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya an fi kamuwa da mutuwa sakamakon cutar maleriya a yankin kudu da hamadar sahara.

Da kuma yankunan Kudu maso Gabashin Asiya da Gabashin Maditereniyan da Yammacin tekun Fesifik, nahiyoyin Amurka su ma suna cikin kasada.

A 2017, cikin kasashe guda biyar ne aka samu kusan yawan adadin mutanen da suka kamu da cutar maleriya na fadin duniya: Najeriya (25%) sai Jamhuriyar Dimokradiyyar Kongo (11%), Mozambique na da (5%), sai India kashi (4%) yayin da Uganda ke da (4%).

Yaduwar maleriya

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A lokuta da yawa, cutar maleriya na yaduwa ne ta hanyar cizon tamatar sauro - kuma tana da nau'i daban-daban har fiye da 400, a cikinsu kamar 30 ne manyan masu yada maleriya.

Duk manyan masu yada cutar suna cizo ne a tsakanin almuru zuwa asuba.

Tamatar sauron tana nasa kwayaye ne a cikin ruwa, daga nan kuma sai su kyankyashe kafin su rikida zuwa sauraye; matan sauraye na neman jini don shayar da kwayayensu.

Kare-kai daga dauka

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Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ta ba da shawarar kare dukkan mutanen da ke cikin kasadar daukar cutar maleriya ta hanyoyi guda biyu da aka tabbatar da ingancinsu.

Hanyoyin kariyar su ne - amfani da gidan sauro da fesa maganin sauro a jikin katangar daki.

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