Ranar yaki da taba: Yadda taba sigari ke kisa a sawwake

The Dutch medical researcher Everard, or Gilles Everaerts in Dutch Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Likita mai bincike Everard ya ce sigari na da tasiri sosai da har za ta iya hana wasu likitoci aikinsu

Hukumar lafiya ta duniya WHO ta ce taba sigari tana kashe rabin masu shanta a fadin duniya.

Mutum milyan shida ne ke mutuwa saboda shan taba sigari, inda kuma 900,000 ke mutuwa saboda shakar hayakinta.

Sai dai shekaru aru-aru da suka wuce ba a daukar sigarin a matsayin cuta ba, inda shi kansa ganyen taba aka yi masa lakabi da "magani daga sama" ko kuma "magani daga Allah" a karni na 16.

Lokacin da yake yayata wannan fahimtar, Dakta Giles Everard dan kasar Netherlands ya yi amannar cewa sinadarin Nicotiana yana da amfanin da zai sa mutum ya rage ganin likita a kai a kai.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Akasarin ganyayyakin taba na tobacco suna da asali ga al'ummar yankin Latin Amurka, inda ake amfani da su a matsayin magani a karni na 15 kafin zuwan Turawan mulkin mallaka.

Baturen farko da ya fara amfani da ganyen taba don yin magani shi ne Christopher Columbus, kamar yadda Farfesa Anne Charlton ta rubuta a mujallar Royal Society of Medicine.

Ya gano cewa ana shan ganyen taba ne da tiyo a shekarar 1492 a yankin tsuburi, wadanda su ne suka zama kasashen Cuba da Haiti da Bahamas.

A wasu lokutan akan zuba ganyen a kan itace a kunna masa wuta domin a yi maganin wasu cututtuka da kuma rage gajiya a jikin mutane.

Akan yi amfani da ganyen taba a wasu lokutan don goge baki a yankin da ya zama kasar Venezuela a yanzu, wanda har yanzu ake yi a kasar Indiya.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Wellcome Collection
Image caption Likitoci a Turai na zamani da na gargajiya na sha'awar yin amfani da ganyen tobacco domin yin magani

Akan yi hakan a sauran sassan duniya.

Baturen mulkin mallaka Pedro Alvares Cabral dan kasar Portugal da ya isa kasar Brazil a shekarar 1500 ya bayar da rahoton cewa betum - kamar yadda ake kiransa wasu lokutan - ana amfani da shi wajen magance wasu cututtuka kamar kumburi.

A kasar New Spain (Mexico a yanzu) wani wakilin Cocin Katolika Bernardino de Sahagun ya fahimci cewa likitoci a kauyuka sukan magance cututtuka da suka shafi jiikin dan Adam ta hanyar zuba tafasasshen ganyen tobacco.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Wellcome Collection
Image caption Ana umartar likitoci a karni na 19 masu karatun kwarangwal din jikin mutum da su yi hayaki don rage warin jikin gawa

Yayin da aka fara nuna damuwa game da matsalolin da sigari ke haifarwa a 1920 zuwa 1930, kamfanonin yin sigari kamar Camel sun fara ikirarin cewa likitoci sun hana shan sigari kuma su ma da kansu suna sha.

Suka ce kuma ana so mawaka su rika sha saboda su "wanke fatar makogaronsu".

Hakkin mallakar hoto Science Museum London
Image caption A wannan hoton ana fadakar da mutane illar da sigari ke yi wa mata ne, inda hayaki ke cika mahaifarsu kamar yadda ake gani a jikin 'yar tsana

Hukumar lafiya ta duniya ta ayyana sigari a matsayin "annoba" kuma "daya daga cikin cututtukan da duniya ba ta taba ganin irinsu ba."

Ta shawarci kasashe da su dauki sabbin matakan hana amfani da taba sigari da kuma dakile tallace-tallacen da kamfanoni masu yin sigari ke daukar nauyi da ma saka haraji mai yawa.

Ta ce amfani da tobacco yana raguwa: kashi 20% na mutanen duniya ne suke shan ganyen taba sigari a 2016 idan aka kwatanta da kashi 27% a shekarar 2000.

Sai dai wannan alkaluman sun yi kadan yayin da ake kokarin bin jadawalin abin da al'ummar duniya ta amince da shi.

Akwai masu shan sigari biliyan daya a duniya, wadanda kashi 80% daga cikinsu sun fito ne daga matsakaita da kuma matalautan kasashe.

A baya-bayan nan sigarin mai amfani da lantarki ta zama ruwan dare, wadda kuma ta maye gurbin sigarin da aka saba da ita ta ganye.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Tabar E-cigarettes ba sa cutarwa amma an matsa wa kamfanin saboda yadda yake sayar wa yara

Suna aiki ne da batiri kuma suna bai wa masu amfani da ita damar shakar sinadarin nicotine a maimakon taba.

E-cigarettes kamar yadda ake kiranta, ba ta fitar da gurbataccen iska, wadanda su ne mafiya hadari a cikin tobacco, sai dai suna da nasu matsalolin, kamar yadda hukumar lafiya ta NHS ta bayyana.

Masu sanya ido na Amurka sun yi dirar mikiya kan wasu kamfanonin sigari saboda yadda yara kanana ke shan tabar e-cigarettes.

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