Amsar tambayoyinku kan zuwa duniyar wata

Na'urarku na da matsalar sauraren sauti
Abubuwa 10 da baku sani ba game da zuwa duniyar wata na farko

Wannan makala ce da ta amsa tambayoyin da masu sauraro suka aiko kan zuwa Duniyar Wata. Ga dai makalar da BBC ta rubuta don amsa tambayoyin naku.

Dumbin masu sauraro ne suka aiko da tambayoyi kan wannan batu kamar su Mohammed Ali, Auwalu Musa, Hamisu Saleh, Usman Mu'azu Funtua, Nasir daga Berlin Jamus da kuma Mustapha Bachakes Gyadi-Gyadi Kano Najeriya.

Gabatarwa

A ranar 13 ga watan Satumbar 1969 tawagar da ke dauke da wasu mutane daga Rasha ta tafi duniyar wata.

Miliyoyin mutane ne a fadin duniya suka kalli nuna shirin yadda aka fara sauka a duniyar wata cikin Yulin 1969.

Sai dai har yanzu akwai mutanen da suka dage kan cewa mutum bai taba taka kafarsa a duniyar wata ba.

Hukumar binciken Sararin Samaniya ta Amurka NASA, ta ruwaito cewa kuri'ar jin ra'ayin mutane ta nuna cewa akwai Amurkawan da suka yarda cewa saukar da aka yi a duniyar wata ba gaskiya ba ce, wato su kimanin kashi 5 cikin 100.

Tabbas wannan na nuni da cewa adadin mutanen ba shi da yawa, amma ya isa ya ci gaba da yada mahangar tunanin karyata lamarin da gasken-gaske.

Image caption Miliyoyin mutane ne a fadin duniya suka kalli nuna shirin yadda aka fara sauka a duniyar wata cikin Yulin 1969

Sauka ta biyu

"Wannan karamin takun mutum daya, yunkuri ne babba guda ga dan Adam"

Mashahurin bayanin Neil Armstrong game da sauka a duniyar Wata hujja ce a kimiyyance da fasahar kere-kere da aka kai ga cin nasara shekaru 50 da suka wuce, wato a ranar 20 ga Yulin 1979.

Amma dai an kai ga muhimman ci gaban da suka shafi harkokin rayuwarmu ta yau da kullum.

An kiyasta kashe kimanin Dala biliyan 200 in an kwatanta da kudin zamanin nan; shirin kumbo Apollo ya kuma zaburar da al'amuran ci gaba a fannoni da dama wadanda ta yiwu ba ku taba saninsu ba.

A nan za mu bibiyi wasu daga cikinsu

1. Saisaita al'amura ya kasance babu dimbin wahalhalu

Na'urorin da ke aiki ta wayar iska sun samu ne tun kafin tashin Apollo, amma dai sanadiyyarsa sun kara bunkasa kamar yadda muke ganinsu a halin yanzu.

Masu kera kayan aiki na Amurka Black & Decker, alal misali sun kaddamar da na'urar "bibiyar kadin sadarwar intanet" ta "sans cable" da suka yi a shekarar 1961

2. Kula da lokacinmu ya inganta

Yin aiki a kan kari na da matukar muhimmancin da ya kai ga nasarar sauka a Duniyar Wata - cikin rabin dakika ka iya haifar da alfanu ga 'yan sama jannati da ke halin tsaka mai wuyar tsakanin rayuwa da mutuwa.

Don haka ba abin mamaki ba ne cewa Nasa ta bukaci agogo mafi ingancin aiki a kan kari da za su iya amfani da shi don kula da manufar tafiyar da suka yunkura don cimmawa.

An samar da agogon da ya fi quartz inganci da ke da karfin bai wa na'urori cikar lokaci daidai-wa-daida na minti guda a shekara.

3. Ya samar mana da tsaftattacen ruwa

Dabarar fasahar kere-kere da aka yi amfani da ita a Kumbon Apollo mai zuwa sararin samaniya a halin yanzu ita ake amfani da ita ta hanyoyi da dama wajen kashe kwayoyi cutar backteriya da algae da ake samu a mabubbugar ruwa.

Shirin ya bude kafar amfani da fasahar kere-kere da ba a ta'ammali da sinadarin chlorine, bisa la'akari da tartsatsin lantarkin sinadarin azurfa.

4. Mun samu takalma masu karko -…abin farin cikin ma su ne tufafin sararin samaniya

Har yanzu 'yan sama jannati na sanya tufafin da suka dace da wadanda aka yi su cikin shekarar 1965 don bayar da kariya ga matukan jirgin sararin samaniya na kumbo Apollo 11 lokacin da suka cilla zuwa duniyar Wata.

Amma dai wannan fasahar kere-kere ta kuma saukaka dabarun yin takalmi da daidaitawa da inganta kayan wasan motsa jiki da ke iya shanye kowane irin farmaki, wadanda suka bazu a kasuwa cikin 'yan shekarun nan.

5. Tufafin kariyar wuta da aka yi amfani da su a sararin sama yanzu ana ta'ammali da su a Doron duniya

Gobarar wutar da ta kama kumbon Apollo 1 lokacin da ake gwaji a shekarar 1967, inda ya hallaka daukacin 'yan sama jannati uku da ke cikin jirgin, ya haifar da rudanin da ya rikita shirin sararin samaniyar Amurka.

Amma dai lamarin da ya auku ya sanya Nasa ta kirkiro kayan da ba sa cin wuta wadanda ake amfani da su a fadin doron duniya.

6. Ya taimaka wajen kera na'urar shawo kan ciwon zuciya da ceton rai

Na'urar defibrillators da ake cusawa na taimaka wa mutanen da ke tattare hadarin ciwon zuciya, wannan abin farin ciki ganin yadda zuwan Nasa sararin sama ya sa aka samu ci gaban kera na'urar.

Na'urar ta yi matukar shan bamban da defibrillators da ake amfani da ita wajen daukin gaugawa, don karamin samfurin ana soke shi ne a cikin fatar mara lafiya don bibiyar kadin bugun zuciya.

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Image caption Tudur Owen ya dade yana bincike kan rawar da Neil Armstrong ya taka a samun wannan ci gaba na bil adam

7. Abincinmu ya kasance tattare a kimshe

A yunkuruin tashi zuwa Duniyar Wata, dole ta sa Nasa ta yi tunanin dabarun barin isasshen wuri da sanya jirgin ya yi shagwal ba nauyi.

Wannan dabarar ta sanya masu alkinta abinci sun gudanar da bincike kan abinci da ya kamata a ci don a kumbo Apollo mai zuwa sararin sama.

Sabanin gajeren tashin da aka yi a baya, wato a shirin daga Duniyar Mercury da Gemini (1961 zuwa 1966), Tafiya sararin sama na daukar jirgin har tsawon zuwa kwanaki 134.

Don shawo kan matsalar sai aka yi dabarar daskarar da abinci, ta yadda ake tatso ruwa da rowan dumi - don cin abinci, kawai sai a kara ruwan zafi.

Lamarin ya yi wa Neil Armstrong kyau kuma ya yi matukar alfanu ga rukunin mahayan tsaunuka da masu cin zango a sansani - musamman ma ganin cewa za a iya saya a mafi karancin kudin da ya kai $4.

8. An samar da bargon ceton rai

Bargon lulluba a tafiyar sama an yi masa lakabin sulke mai walwali da hukumar sararin sama ke amfani da shi don kare kumbon Apollo daga zafin rana.

Sai a ga jirgin ko kumbon ya yi kamar an lullube shi da fallen abu mai kyalli, amma dai ta haka aka samu dabarar yin bargon kare rayuwa da muka sani, kuma muke gani a yau.

Sarrafa roba da fim da alminium, bargon tafiya sama a wannan zamanin ba 'yan sama jannati kadai ke samun kariya daga gare shi ba.

Sauka ta uku

Ranar 15 ga Satumbar 1959, Jirgin sararin samaniya na Tarayyar Sobiyat Nikita Khrushchev ya sauka a Washington don kai ziyara Amurka mai ban sha'awa a tarihi.

A yayin ziyarar fadar White House, Khrushchev ya bai wa takwaransa, Dwight Eisenhower kyautar wani mulmulallen abu da aka kakaba masa zayyanar tambari Sobiyat.

Kyautar ta kasance tambarin nasa kwatankwacin wadda aka dauka a jirgin saman Luna2 don kafa hujja, wanda kwana guda daga bisani ya zama shi ne kumbon farko da ya fsauka a Duniyar Wata.

Saura kadan da su shiga gaban Amurka wajen zuwa Duniyar Wata sau biyu kafin daga bisani Hukumar binciken sararin Samaniya ta Nasa ta kutsa ta kai ga gacin kaddamar da kumbon Apollo 11 a shekarar 1969.

Bunkasar sufurin sararin samaniya

Kasancewar Sobiyat ce ta fara sauka a Duniyar Wata, Sobiyat ta yi babban yunkuri ta hanyar fara ziyarar sararin sama a shekarar 1957, inda ta kaddamar da tauraron dan Adam na Sputnik.

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Image caption Lokacin da aka harba kumbo Apollo a 1962

Moscow ta yi nasarar sauka Duniyar Wata karon farko da kumbon Luna 9 a Fabrairun 1966, sannan sun dauko hotunan farko daga sararin duniyar Wata

Watanni biyu daga bisani, kumbon Luna 10 ya zama jirgin saman farko da ya kewaya falakin wata.

Wannan ya taimaka mana wajen nazarin binciken sararin samaniyar wata, ama kuma saboda rige-rigen da aka yin a cillawa sararin samaniyar masanan kimiyya na kowane bangare sun cimma matsayar cewa " tashi kaikaice ba kaitsaye ba - indirect flights" al'amarin da ya hado da samfurin kumbon Luna zai fi saukin sauka a duniyar wata kaitsaye.

A shekarar 1961, wani Injiniyan Hukumar Nasa, John Houbolt ya bijiro da dabarar kewaya falakin wata (LOR), inda babban jirgi zai kewaya falakin Wata da kuma karamin kumbon da ke manne da shi zai iya sauka.

Houboult ya yi nuni da cewa dabarar kewaya falakin ta LOR za ta cimma lokaci a kan kari da rage shan mai, kuma cikin sauki za a yi ta bunkasa shirin tafiya sararin samaniya, a yi gwaji da kere-keren na'urori da tarairayar lokaci da harkokin tashin jirage zuwa sama.

Samun fifiko

Kafin a turo mutum ya sauka a kan Wata sai an tura mutum-mutumin Robot, sannan an manta da irin nasarorin da Sobiyat ta samu," a cewar Dough Millard, wani mai adana kayan tarihin sufurin sararin samaniya da ke Gidan Adana Kayan Tarihin Kimiyya a Landan, ya fada wa BBC.

Kumbon Luna 2 Luna 2

An kaddamar da Curarren kumbon sararin sama ranar 12 ga Satumbar 1959.

Hukumomin Tarayyar Sobiyat sun yi wani babban yunkurin sirri a shirinsu na sararin samaniya: sun sanar da masanin ilimin taurarin nan dan Birtaniya Bernard Lovell da muhimman bayanai game da jirgin, tare da yadda za a cilla shi sama.

Lovell ne ya tabbatar da nasarar tafiyar ga masu sa ido da ke waje, wadanda suka hada da Amurkawa, wadanda da farko sun karyata nasarar da aka cimmawa.

Kumbon Luna 2 ya sauka duniyar Watan ne yana cin kilomita 12,000 a sa'a guda kwatsam bayan tsakar dare (lokacin agogon Moscow) ranar 14 ga Satumbar 1959.

Sai dai ta yiwu babu hujja, ba babu kayan da ya tsira.

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Amma dai zuwa sararin saman ta fi gaban burgar Yakin Cacar Baki.

Kumbon Luna 2 ya yi gwajin na'urorin kimiyya: ya tabbatar da cewa duniyar Wata ba ta dauke sasarin maganadisu sannan babu alamar kawanyar rugugin sinadarai.

Kumbon Luna 9

Shekaru bakwai daga bisani, kumbon Luna 9 a hakikanin gaskiya ya taimaka wa shirin kumbo Apollo.

Kafin saukarsa Duniyar Wata, daukacin masana kimiyyar Sobiyat da Amurka sun yi zaton cewa doron falalen wata na da taushi baibaye da kurar kasa mai zurfi har ta kai ga haifar da mnutsewar duk wanda ya sauka a kai.

Sobiyat ta tabbatar da cewa falalen doron duniyar Wata yana da tsandauri kuma ya kasance muhimmin bayani.

"Wannan ita ce gaskiyar da kimiyyar ta tabbatar da ita kuma a hakikanin gaskiya ta taimaka wa shirin tafiya sararin samaniya da ake hankoro nan gaba, " a cewar Jackson.

Kumbon Luna 10

Ta kasance wata farfagandar nasarar Sobiyat a kan Amurkawa.

"Kamata ya yi mu tuna ceewa siyasar bangare ko nahiya ta zaburar da gasar ruge-rugen tafiya sararin samaniya," a cewar masanin kimiyyar Fiziya.

Dangane da Kumbon Luna 10, ya bankado muhimman abubuwa game da irin nau'in kasar da ke damfare a Wata da kananan halittun kwayoyin zarra - kananan tsakuwoyin da ke tafiya a guje a sararin sama, wadanda kuma barazana ce ga shirin tafiya sararin samaniya.

Sannan a hakikanin gaskiya rayuwar 'yan sama jannati a doron Wata, inda babu iska, wadannan kananan tsakuwoyi kwayoyin zarra in har ba a kawar da su ba, to suna da matukar hadari fiye da doron kasar Duniya.

A shekarar 1968 ko da yake Amurkawa sun samu babban tagomashi da yunkurawar da suka da kumbon Apollo 8, inda suka kokarta suka tura kumbon da ake sarrafawa duniyar Wata, ya kewaya falaki sannan ya dawo lafiya kalau.

Kasa da shekara guda daga bisani, kumbon Apollo 11 ya sauka a duniyar Wata.

Fafutikar siyasa

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Image caption Yadda ake iya ganin duniyarmu ta Earth daga sararin duniyar wata yayin da Apollo 17 ya isa can a Disambar 1972

Daukacin Amurkawa da tarayyar Sobiyat sun gano cewa tun tashin farko da suke ta ruge-ruge a gasar zuwa duniyar Wata, don samun nasarar kewaya falakin Wata (LOR), suna bukatar wani managarcin cukurkudadden dabarar sauka a sararin samaniya.

Yayin da Amurkawa suka samu nasarar juya akalar al'amuran a shekarar 1966, Rashawa ba su kai ga gaci ba kafin Janairun 1969.

Sannan shirin sararin samaniyar Sobiyat na da alaka da fafutikar Kwamunisanci kan jagoranci da gasar albarkatun kasa tare da rundujnar soja, al'amarin ya fi bayar da fifiko wajen kera makamai masu linzami a cikin kasara na kera makaman nukiliya d aya kawo wa shirin tarnaki.

Tarnaki na gaba

A littafinsa mai taken "Kalubalen Apollo: Tarayyar Sobiyat da gasar tseren zuwa sararin samaniya, daga 1945 zuwa 1974," Asif Siddiqui ya yayin cewa Sobiyat ta fara shirin ne gadan-gadan da gaske na shirin kai mutum ya sauka a duniyar Wata cikin shekarar 1964, shekaru kadan bayan da Amurkawa suka kai ga gaci.

"Akwai yawan kankane sirri tattare da shirin sararin samaniyar Tarayyar Sobiyat, don haka tafiyar duniyar wata ta farko ta yi wata irin kayatarwar ban mamaki," in ji shi.

"A hakikanin gaskiya shirin gwaji ya yi ta cin karo daga wannan abu zuwa wancan abun."

Wannan ita ce fahimtar mutanen da ada suka rike mukamai a cikin tsohuwar Tarayyar Sobiyat.

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Yunkurin karshe

Har yanzu, bayan an gano cewa kai mutum doron duniyar Wata ya zauna ya gagara, Sobiyat ta yi kokarin ruguntsimin rufa ido mai daukar hankali. Ta kaddamar da hujjar nuna yadda ta debo kasar duniyar Wata, tare da dawowa kasa kafin saukar Apollo 11.

A ranar 13 Yulin 1969, kwanaki uku kafin a harba kumbo Apollo 11, kumbon Luna 15 ya cilla zuwa sararin samaniya.

Ya shiga falakin duniyar Wata kwanaki hudu daga bisani, sa'o'i 72 yana gaban kumbon Apollo 11, amma ya karke da tarwatsewa a sama, 'yan kilomitoci daruruwa daga inda Armstrong da Aldrin ke shirin dawowa doron kasar duniya.

"Muna da tabbacin cewa 'a sama daukacin duniya' da tuni mun sha gaban Amurka wajen tura mutane zuwa duniyar Wata mu ma. Amma buri wani abu daban, yayin da damammaki su ma daban suke," a cewar Vassily Mishin , wanda ya maye gurbin Sergei Korolev a shirin Sobiyar na binciken sararin samaniya, ya bayyana wa gidan talsabijin Amurkawa na PBS a falsafancve cikin shekarar 1999.

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