Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi: Tarihin jagoran kungiyar IS

An yi wa Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi ganin karshe a bidiyo a watan Afrilun 2019. Hakkin mallakar hoto AFP
Image caption An yi wa Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi ganin karshe a bidiyo a watan Afrilun 2019.

Abu bakr al-Baghdadi, shugaban kungiyar da ke ikirarin jihadi ta IS kuma wanda ake gani shi ne wanda aka fi nema ruwa a jallo a duniya ya kashe kansa yayin wani samame da sojojin Amurka suka kai a arewa maso yammacin Syria, inji Shugaba Donald Trump na Amurka.

Kafin kama al-Baghdadi wanda ake yi wa lakabi da "Caliph Ibrahim," an saka kusan dala miliyan 25 a matsayin lada ga duk wanda ya kawo shi.

An shafe kusan shekaru biyar Amurka da kawayenta na kokarin kama shi tun bayan da kungiyar IS ta yi karfi a 2014.

An yi kiyasin cewa kungiyar IS na da iko da kusan muraba'in kilomita dubu 88 daga yammacin Syria zuwa gabashin Iraki, kuma tana mulkin kama karya ga kusan mutum miliyan takwas kuma ta samu biliyoyin daloli a matsayin kudaden shiga daga danyen man fetur, sata da kuma garkuwa da mutane.

Amma duk da mutuwar shugaban kungiyar a halin yanzu, kungiyar ta IS na da karfin gaske matuka kuma murkushe ta zai yi matukar wahala.

'Wanda ya yarda da Allah'

Baghdadi - wanda sunansa na ainahi shi ne Ibrahim Awwad Ibrahim al-Badri - an haife shi a 1971 a garin Samarra da ke tsakiyar Iraki.

A lokacin yana matashi, ana masa lakabi da ''wanda ya yarda da Allah'' sakamakon tsawon lokacin da yake dauka yana zaune a masallaci yana karatun Al-Qur'ani kuma yana yawan caccakar wadanda ba su koyi da shari'ar musulunci.

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Image caption An haifi Ibrahim Awwad Ibrahim al-Badri a Samarra da ke Iraki a 1971

'Jami'ar masu ikirarin jihadi'

Bayan harin da Amurka ta kai da ya kai ga tarwatsa gwamnatin Saddam Hussein a 2003, an shaida cewa Baghadadi ya taimaka wajen samar da wata kungiyar jihadi mai suna ''Jamaat Jaysh Ahl al-Sunnah wa-l-Jamaah'' wadda ta rinka kai hari ga sojojin Amurka da kawayensu.

A cikin kungiyar, shi ne shugaban kwamitin shari'a.

A farkon 2004, sojojin Amurka sun taba kama Baghdadi a garin Falluja da ke yammacin Bagadaza inda suka kai shi wani sansanin tsare masu laifi da ake kira ''Bucca'' a Iraki.

Hakkin mallakar hoto AFP
Image caption Amurka ta taba tsare Baghadadi a sansanin Bucca na kusan watanni 10.

An bayyana sansanin Bucca a matsayin wata ''jami'a'' ta manyan gobe amma ta kungiyar IS, wanda wuri ne da wadanda aka tsare suka gauraya da sauran mutane inda suka san junansu kuma suka kulla kawance.

An bayyana cewa a lokacin da yana tsare a sansanin, ya yi limanci ya gudanar da hudubobi kuma ya koya darussa na addini kuma wani lokaci idan an samu rikici tsakanin wadanda suke tsare, jami'an da ke gudanar da sansanin kan sa al-Baghadadi domin ya shiga tsakani domin gudanar da sulhu.

A lokacin, Amurka ta dauki al-Baghadadi a matsayin mutum wanda bai da barazana ga harkokin tsaro wanda wannan dalili ne ya sa aka sake shi bayan watanni 10.

Daya daga cikin jami'an ma'aikatar tsaro ta Amurka ta Pentagon ya shaida wa jaridar New York Times a 2014 cewa ''Dan daban kan titi ne a lokacin da muka kama shi a 2004,''

Kara gina al-Qaeda a Iraki

Bayan ya bar sansanin Bucca, ana zargin cewa al-Baghdadi ya samu haduwa da sabuwar kungiyar al-Qaeda da aka kafa a wancan lokaci. A lokacin, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi dan kasar Jordan shi ne ke jagorantar kungiyar.

Kungiyar al-Qaeda ta Iraki ta zama wata babbar kungiya a wancan lokaci kuma ta yi suna sakamakon irin kisar da take yi irin ta rashin imani.

A farkon 2006, kungiyar al-Qaeda ta Iraki ta kafa wata gidauniya mai suna ''Mujahideen Shura Council'' wadda gidauniya ce da kungiyar da al-Baghdadi yake a wancan lokaci suka yi mata mubaya'a.

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A cikin wannan shekara dai ta 2006 bayan mutuwar Zarqawi sakamakon wani hari ta sama da Amurka suka kai, kungiyar ta sauya sunanta zuwa ''Islamic State of Iraq'' (ISI.)

Baghadadi a wancan lokacin shi ne ya ci gaba da sa ido a kwamitin shari'a na kungiyar kuma ya shiga majalisar Shura.

A lokacin da aka kashe Shugaban ISI wato Abu Umar al-Baghdadi tare da mataimakinsa Abu Ayyub al-Masri a wani hari da Amurka ta kai a 2010, an bayyana Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi a matsayin wanda ya gaje shi.

Ya gaji wata kungiya da sojojin Amurka a wancan lokaci ke ganin cewa tana daf da rugujewa. Sai dai tare da taimakon wasu daga cikin sojoji na lokacin mulkin Saddam da kuma jami'ansa na tattara bayanan sirri da kuma wadanda ya yi kawance da su a sansanin Bucca, ya sake gina kungiyar ta ISI a hankali.

'Caliph Ibrahim'

A farkon 2013, kungiyar na kai gwamman hare-hare a duk wata a Iraki. Kungiyar ta yi hadin gwiwa da 'yan tawayen Shugaba Bashar al-Assad a Syria.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Reuters

A watan Afrilu, Baghdadi ya bayyana hadin gwiwar mayakansa na Iraki da na Syria da kuma kaddamar da ''Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant.''

Sai dai shugabannin kungiyoyin al-Qaeda da kuma al-Nusra sun yi watsi da wannan yunkurin na al-Baghdadi, sai dai mayakan da ke yi masa mubaya'a kawunansu sun rabu inda wasu suka bar bangaren al-Nusra domin taimaka wa Isis ci gaba da zama a Syria.

A karshen 2013, Isis ta mayar da hankali zuwa Iraki inda ta yi amfani da rikicin da ke tsakanin gwamnatin Shi'a da kuma 'yan Ahlis Sunnah domin samun nasara. Da taimakon 'yan kabilarsu da kuma mutanen da ke yi wa Saddam mubaya'a, kungiyar Isis ta kwace iko da Falluja.

A watan Yunin 2014, daruruwan mayakan Isis ne suka rinka kai kawo a arewacin garin Mosul, inda suka rinka samun nasara kan sojojin Iraki, suka kuma matsa can gaba zuwa Bagadaza, inda mayakan Isis din suka rinka kashe abokan gabarsu, suka kuma rinka barazanar cewa sai sun kashe kabilu da kuma addinai marasa rinjaye a kasar.

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Hakkin mallakar hoto Reuters

Karya Kungiyar IS

Cikin kusan shekaru biyar da kungiyar ta shafe tana kai hare-hare, a hankali an yi kokarin fatattakar kungiyar daga wuraren da take da iko da su.

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Wannan yakin ya jawo asarar dubban mutane a kasashen biyu, ya kuma raba miliyoyin mutane da muhallansu, wuraren da ya shafa kuma wasu sun zama kufai.

A Iraki, sojojin kasar da kuma mayakan Kurdawa sun samu goyon bayan Amurka da kawayenta da kuma jami'an tsaro masu kayan sarki na Iran.

A Syria, sojojin hadin gwiwa na Amurka sun goyi bayan hadin gwiwar mayakan Kurdawa da kuma mayakan Larabawa da kuma wasu 'yan awaren 'yan tawayen Syria.

Jami'an da ke yi wa Shugaba Assad biyayya sun yaki IS tare da taimakon sojojin saman Rasha da kuma wasu dakarun Iran.

A yakin da aka shafe kusan shekaru biyar ana gwabzawa, tambayar da ake yi ta ko al-Baghdadi na da rai ko ya mutu ta saka mutane cikin dimuwa sakamakon rashin ansa.

A watan Yulin 2017, a daidai lokacin da dakarun Iraki ke yakar sauran 'yan kungiyar IS da suka rage a Mosul, jami'ai a Rasha sun bayyana cewa akwai yiwuwar cewa Baghdadi ya mutu a wani harin sama da sojojin sama na Rasha suka kai a wajen birnin Raqqa da ke arewacin Syria.

Amma a Satumbar 2017, kungiyar IS ta saki wani sako na murya da ake zargin muryar al-Baghdadi ce da ya yi kira ga mabiyan kungiyar da su kara matsa kaimi wajen yakar makiyansu.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Reuters

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