Mece ce Nato, me ya sa aka kirkire ta, har yanzu tana da tasiri?

Sojojin kawancen NATO a lokacin atisaye a shekarar 2015 Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Watannin da suka gabata wasu daga kasashen da ke cikin kawancen na sukar lamirin Nato

An kafa kungiyar kawancen tsaro ta Nato a shekarar 1949, a farko-farkon fara yakin cacar baki, a matsayin kawancen 'yan siyasa da sojoji da nufin kare kasashe mambobi.

Shekara 70 bayan nan, a iya cewa Nato ta yi tasiri da kawo sauyi musamman ta fuskar tsaro?

Kasashen da ke cikin kawancen sun fara samun sabani da rabuwar kawuna ta yadda wasu mambobi ke sukar lamirin yadda lamura ke tafiya a ciki. Wadannan kasashe su ne Amurka da Turkiyya da Faransa.

A ranakun Talata da Laraba mambobin Nato 29 suna wata ganawa a birnin Landan, duk da cewa masu fafutuka na cewa wannan shi ne kawancen soji mai nagarta da aka taba samu a tarihi. Ana ci gaba da dasa ayar tambaya kan makomar kungiyar a nan gaba.

Ta yaya aka kafa Nato?

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Image caption A shekarar 1949 aka kafa kungiyar Nato a farkon fara yakin cacar-baki

Kasashe goma ne suka kafa kungiyar Nato, yayin da Amurka da Canada suka shiga cikinsu bayan yakin duniya na Biyu. Babban aikin da aka kafa Nato a kai shi ne don ta yi maganin Tarayyar Soviet.

Bayan kasancewarta daya daga cikin wadanda suka yi nasara a yakin, dakarun Soviet sun ci gaba da zama a gabashin Turai, yayin da Rasha ta yi nasara a kan wasu kasashen, ciki har da gabashin Jamus.

Wadanda suka yi nasara a yakin sun mamaye birnin Berlin na Jamus. A tsakiyar shekarun 1948 firimiyan Soviet Joseph Stalin ya fara hana zuwa yammacin Berlin, wadda a lokacin take karkashin ikon kawancen Amurka da Birtaniya da Faransa, yayin da Soviet ke iko da yammacin Jamus.

A shekarar 1949 kasashen Amurka da Saudiyya da Fransa da Italiya da Canada da Norway da Belgium da Denmark da Netherlands da Portugal da Iceland da kuma Luxembourg suka shiga cikin rundunar tsaro ta Nato.

Sannu a hankali kungiyar ta kara fadada, inda kasashen Turkiyya da Girka suka shiga ciki a shekarar 1952.

Ita kuwa yammacin Jamus ta shiga ciki a shekarar 1955.

Tun daga shekarar 1999, kungiyar tsaro ta Nato ta samu karuwar kasashe da suka zama mambobinta - abin da ya kawo karuwar mambobin kungiyar zuwa 29.

Kasar Montenegro ita ce kasa ta karshe da ta shiga kawancen a shekarar 2017.

Mene ne amfanin Nato?

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Image caption Babban aikin kungiyar tsaro ta Nato shi ne kare Tarayar Soviet

Aikin Nato ko manufarta a hukumance shi ne ''kare 'yanci da al'adun da kuma tabbatar da zaman lafiya da dorewar yankin arewacin Atlantic da kasashen da ke cikin kawancen''.

Yarjejeniyar da kasashen suka kulla ita ce duk wani hari da aka kai wa daya daga cikinsu, to ya shafi dukkan mambobi, kuma za su kai wa wannan kasa dauki.

A zahiri, tabbatar da tsaron kasashe mambobi da ke Turai ya ta'allaka ne ga na kasashe mambobi da ke arewacin Amurka.

A baya kungiyar na kallon Tarayyar Soviet da Kwamunisanci a matsayin babbar barazana ga tsaron kasashen.

Amma tun bayan samar da kungiyar, iyakokin kasashen Nato sun matsa kusa da Rasha da nisan kilomita 1000.

Yanzu kuma kungiyar tana kallon tsohuwar Tarayyar Soviet a matsayin mamba tun bayan juyin juya halin shekarar 1989 a gabashin Turai da kuma kawo karshen Tarayyar Soviet din.

Idan babu USSR, zaman me Nato ke yi?

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Image caption Har yanzu akwai sojoji 17,000 a Afghanistan karkashin umarnin Nato

Bayan kawo karshen yakin cacar baki, Tarayyar Soviet ba ta nufin kasashen yamma su daina damuwa da Rasha.

''Babu wanda ya amince bacewar Kwamunisanci zai samar da wata matsala ta 'yan Nirvana, wani lokaci da kawancen zai kasance ba tare da rundutsar soji ba, ko zama ba tare da kariya ba,'' in ji wani babban jami'in Nato Jamie shea a shekarar 2003.

Haka kuma sojojin Rasha sun ci gaba da samun karfi sakamakon faduwar Yugoslavia, abin da ya sake haddasa dawowar yaki a Turai a shekarun 1990.

Yawaitar tashe-tashen hankula ya sanya Nato zama kungiyar da ke shiga tsakani akai-akai. Ayyukan sojinta sun hada da kai haren-hare a Serbia da Bosnia da Kosovo da kuma ayyukan wanzar da zaman lafiya a kasashen da ke fuskantar yaki.

A karon farko a shekarar 2001 Nato ta fara ayyukanta a wajen Turai, inda ta fara daukar matakin shiga kawancen dakarun da aka girke a kasar Afghanistan bayan harin 11 ga watan Satumba.

Kimanin sojojin Nato 17,000 sun ci gaba da zama a kasar a matsayin masu aikin wanzar da zaman lafiya da bai wa dakarun Afghanistan shawara da taimako na musamman.

Me ya sa mambobin Nato ke musayar yawu?

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Image caption Shugaba Trump na Amurka ya sha jifar kawancen Nato da bakaken maganganu

Shugaban Amurka Donald Trump ya dade yana sukar lamirin Nato.

Ko a shekarar 2016, lokacin da yake takarar shugaban kasa, jam'iyyar Republican ta ayyana Nato a matsayin "maras amfani" tare da cewa Nato ka iya tabuka wani abu idan kungiyar ta wargaje.

Trump ya kara da cewa idan Amurka ta ga dama ba za ta bi dokokin da ke cikinta ba, musamman batun kare kasashe mambobi, za ta iya ficewa ma daga yarjejeniyar baki daya.

Ya kuma yi korafin Amurka na kashe makudan kudade dan kare kasashe mambobin Nato.

Ya taba wallafawa a shafinsa na Twitter a watan Satumbar 2018 cewa ''Amurka na kashe kudi kan tsaron Nato fiye da sauran mambobin kawancen. Wannan bai dace ba, ba kuma za a amince da shi ba".

Watakil yana da hujja, saboda Amurka ce ke bayar da kusan kashi 70 na kudin da ake tsare kasashe mambobi, kamar yadda kididdigar shekarar 2018 ta nuna.

Sannan a shekarar 2014, mamabobin Nato sun amince su kara kudaden da ake kashewa na tsaro da kashi biyu daga nan zuwa 2024.

Sai dai kalilan daga cikinsu ne suka fara aiwatarwa.

Me Turkiyya ke ciki?

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Image caption Shigar Turkiyya yakin da ake a Syria ya fusata mambobin Nato

Turkiyya ta zama mambar Nato a shekarar 1951. Amma a yanzu ta janyo rarrabuwar kawuna tsakanin mambobi kan katsalandan da ta yi a yakin da ake yi a Syria, ta hanyar kai hari a kan Kurdawa na kungiyar YPG da take kallo a matsayin 'yan ta'adda.

Tuni kungiyar Tarayyar Turai ta dakatar da saida wa Turkiyya makamai a matsayin martani kan harin da ta fara kai wa Kurdawan a watan Oktoba.

Sannan kasashe 22 cikin 28 su ma sun dauki mataki. Cikinsu akwai Faransa da Sifaniya da Birtaniya wadanda su ne manyan wadanda ke saidawa Turkiyya makamai.

Haka kuma babban kawancen soji da ke kara danko tsakanin Turkiyya da Rasha ya kara janyo karuwar baraka tsakaninta da Nato.

Gwammnatin Shugaba Recep Tayyip Erdogan ta rattaba hannu kan wani kwantiragi tsakaninta da Rasha da za ta samar mata da makamai masu linzami samfurin S-400, duk da cewa Amurka ta nuna bata amince da cinikin ba.

Tun shekarar 2013 Amurka ke kokarin saida wa Turkiyya jiragen yaki, amma cinikin bai kaya ba, saboda Erdogan ya bukaci a yi musayar fasaha da za ta bai wa Turkiyya damar bunkasa tata fasahar.

Gwamnatin tsohon Shugaba Barack Obama ta yi watsi da bukatar ta Erdogan.

A lokacin ne Turkiyya ta tuntubi Rasha domin sayen makami mai linzamin, kuma tuni cinikin ya dauko hanyar kayawa.

Daga wannan lokacin ne Amurka ta kori Turkiyya daga aikin hadin gwiwar samar da jiragen yaki samfurin F-35, saboda fargabar yarjejeniyar sayar da makamin S-400 ka iya bai wa Rasha damar samun wasu bayanan sirri kan jiragen yaki na F-35.

Me Faransa ke ciki?

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Image caption Sukar da Macron ke yi wa kungiyar Nato ce ta bambanta su da Merkel

Shugaban Faransa Emmanuel Macron ya shaida wa mujallar tattalin arziki cewa kungiyar Nato ba abin da ta ke yi. Ya kuma nuna damuwa kan yadda Amurka ke yi wa al'amuran kungiyar rikon sakainar kashi, da kuma yadda Amurkar ta janye dakarunta daga Syria ba tare da shaida wa Nato ba.

Ya kara da cewa ba shi da tabbacin ko mambobin Nato za su iya kare juna idan bukatar hakan ta taso.

Wannan hira da aka yi da Macron ta janyo zazzafar muhawara a kasashe, ciki har da aminiyarsa shugabar gwamnatin Jamus Angela Merkel.

Jaridar New York Times ta Amurka ta wallafa gargadin da Misis Markel ta yi wa Mista Macron, cewa ''Akai-akai ina ta kokarin dinke barakar da kake haddasawa, saboda nan gaba kadan mu zauna domin tattaunawa tare da kai".

Shin ficewar Birtaniya daga Tarayyar Turai zata kawo matsala?

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Image caption Ana tsoron ficewar Birtaniya daga Tarayyar Turai ta janyo rabuwar kawuna tsakanin mambobin da 22 daga cikin 28 na Tarayyar Turai ne

Kungiyar Nato za ta yi taronta a birnin London, mako guda gabannin babban zaben kasar Birtaniya wanda ba'a san abin da zai haifar ba.

Har yanzu Birtaniya bata yanke shawara kan yadda ficewarta daga Tarayyar Turai za ta kasance ba.

Ana fargabar ficewar Birtaniya daga Tarayyar Turai ka iya janyo matsala, kasancewar kasa 22 daga cikin Nato sun fito ne daga Turai.

A yanzu dai Amurka ce kadai ke kashe yawancin kudin da ake kare kasashe mambobin kungiyar.

Me zai faru da Nato nan gaba?

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Image caption Nato ta na nuna damuwa kan shugaba Vladimir Putin na Rasha

Kasashen Nato ne suke da amsar bayarwa kan makomar kawancen nan gaba.

Tsohon mataimakin sakatare janar na kungiyar Nato Alexander Vershbows, ya ce matukar ana cigaba da fuskantar tsagerancin Rasha, to kuwa ana bukatar kungiyar Nato, saboda aikinta ya ta'allaka ne kan tsaron kasashe mambobi.

Ya kara da cewa, ''Ina ganin muna bukatar kungiyar Nato ta kara wasu shekara 70 nan gaba.''

Bikin cika shekara 70 da kafuwar Nato ba zai yi armashi, a dai-dai lokacin da kawancen kasashen ke zaman tankiya ga junansu.

Sai dai suna fatan ganin dorewar kawancen don tabbatar da zaman lafiya a kasashensu.

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