Afrika Ta Yamma: Ko Faransa na samun galaba kan yakin da take da mayakan sa kai?

French soldiers in Niger Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Sojojin Faransa a Nijar

Karuwar hare-haren masu ikirarin jihadi a yammacin Afrika ya janyo alamun tambaya game da taimakon da sojin Faransa ke bayar wa a yankin.

Shugaban kasar Faransa Emmanuel Macron ya ziyarci Jamhuriyyar Nijar a wannan makon domin bayani kan wannan damuwa, da kuma ta'aziyya game da harin da ya yi sanadiyyar mutuwar sojin Faransa da wasu sojojin da ke aiki a yankin.

Sojin Faransa na zaune a yankin ne tun 2014, domin jagorantar harkokin tsaro da ke addabar kasashen Mali da Murtaniya da Nijar da Chadi da kuma Burkina Faso.

Suna yakar masu ikirarin jihadi da ke cike da rudani, wanda shugaban kasar Nijar Mahamadou Issoufou ya kira da yakin da ake da tsantsar kwarewa.

Wani hari da mayakan suka kai kan sansanin sojin a farkon watan nan ya yi sanadiyyar mutuwar sama da sojin Nijar 70.

A watan Nuwamba, an kashe sojin Faransa 13 a wani harin helikwafta yayin wani dauki ba dadi da suka yi da mayakan a kasar Mali, wanda wannan ita ce babbar asarar soji da Faransa ta yi tun shekarun 1980.

Shugabannin yankin sun yi yekuwar karin neman taimako daga kasashen duniya domin ganin bayan mayakan, sai dai ana ta samun zanga-zangar kin jinin sojin Faransan a wasu birane a wasu yankin.

Yaki mai sarkakiya da masu dauke da makamai

Yankin Sahel, yankin da ke da yawan jama'a a Afrika ta yamma, gida ne a wajen da yawa daga cikin al-Qaeda da wasu kungiyoyi da ke da alaka da IS.

Akwai kuma mayakan cikin gida da ke yaki saboda kabilunsu, wasu kuma na yakarsu tare da mayakan Faransa da na hadin gwiwar kasashen.

Wani kokarin na dakile ta'addanci ya samu gagarumar nasara, na korar babban kwamandan mayakan tare da fatattakar wasu da ke biye masa. Sai dai yanayin na kara dagulewa.

A Nijar, harin mayakan na kara daukar wani salo a wannan shekarar.

Haka zalika a makwabciyar kasar wato Mali, aikin dakile matsalar tsaro da ya kawo sojin Faransa a 2014 zuwa yankin domin taimakawa, sakamako ya tabbatar da cewa kokarin kawo karshen matsalar tsaron ba ya samun wani ci gaba.

Adadin mutanen da suka rasa rayukansu a rikicin tsakanin sojin Mali da kuma kungiyoyin mayaka ya ninka wadanda suka mutu a bara, kamar yadda bayanan wata kungiya Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (Acled), mai bibiyar rikicin da ke da alaka da siyasa ta bayyana.

Manyan kungiyoyin mayaka:

  • Jama'at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin (JNIM) - Kawancen mayakan masu dauke da makamai da ke aikinsu a yankin Sahel
  • The Islamic State in the Greater Sahara (ISGS) - Wadda ke da alaka da kungiyar IS dake ayyukanta a arewa maso gabashin Mali
  • Ansarul Islam - Da ke ayyukanta a arewacin Burkina Faso
  • Boko Haram - Da ke arewa maso gabashin Naeriya da Nijar da Chadi da kuma arewacin Kamaru.

Mafi yawan kasashen yankin na fama da karuwar mutuwar fararen hula da sojoji da su kansu mayakan da kuma al'ummomi.

Burkina Faso - kasa ce wacce a baya ba a fiye samun hare-haren 'yan ta da kayar bayan ba, yanzu na fuskantar hare-hare mayakan.

Hakan kuma na da alaka da karuwar tsallakawar da mayakan ke yi zuwa kasashen makota daga kasar Mali, duk da dai wannan ba shi ne cikakken labarin ba.

"Kasar Mali ta zama wata cibiyar rikici a yankin Sahel, wanda hakan ke yaduwa zuwa Burkina Faso da Nijar" in ji Flore Berger na cibiyar koyar da dabarun yaki ta kasa da kasa.

"La'akari da harin da wasu mayaka sama da dari suka kai Indelimane a Nijar da ya yi sanadiyyar mutuwar sojoji Nijar 71, ya nuna mayakan sun shirya kansu yadda ya kamata."

Karuwar matsalar tsaron na da alaka da masatalar kabilanci da kungiyoyin al'umma, inda wasu suka dauki matakin kare kansu daga mayakan, da ya haddasa rikicin da yaki ci yaki cinyewa, da ke da nasaba yadda ake jin haushin juna tun dadewa.

Wani mai sharhi kan al'amuran tsaro ya bayyana karuwar fadace-fadacen kan cewa na da alaka da haramtaccen kasuwancin makamai da kwayoyi da gwal da kuma man fetur.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Shugaban Faransa Emmanuel Macron da na Mali Ibrahim Boubacar Keita

Wanene mai aikin ba da tsaro a yankin Sahel?

Akwai sama da sojin Faransa 4,500 da ke zaune a yankin, Faransa ce ke gudanar da gagarumin aikin tsaro a yankin.

Majalisar Dinkin Duniya MDD, na da soji sama da 15,000 a Mali, a wani akin da a kai wa lakabi da Minusma.

Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ma ta samar da taimakon soji a yankin, inda aka girke lokacin da mayakan IS suka kashe sojin Najeriya a 2017.

Masu sharhi kan al'amuran tsaro da kuma sojin Faransa sun ce aikin dakile ta'addanci a yankin na bukatar manufofin da za a aiwatar a siyasance.

"Dakarun Faransa na da kwarin gwiwar cewa Mali za ta dauki nauyin hakan, sannan MDD ta tabbatar da manufofin da za su taimaka wajen samar da zaman lafiya," In ji Ms Berger

Adadin 'yan gudun hijira na karuwa a yankin, inda wasu ke guduwa daga biranen da suke zuwa manyan birane domin tsira daga rikice-rikicen da suka addabi yankin.

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