Nigeria@60: 'Yadda jam'iyyu suka yi gwagwarmayar kwato 'yancin Najeriya'

Bayanan bidiyo,

Alhaji Tanko Yakasai

Alhaji Tanko Yakasai wanda yana matashi dan shekara 35 Najeriya ta samu 'yanci wanda kuma da shi aka yi gwagwarmaya a jam'iyyun ya ce "bakin 'yan Najeriya ya zo daya dangane da neman 'yanci."

A ranar 1 ga watan Oktoban shekarar 1960 ne Najeriya ta samu 'yancin kai daga hannun Turawan mulkin mallaka na kasar Burtaniya.

Najeriyar dai ta samu 'yancin ne bayan kwashe shekaru 46 karkashin Turawan mulkin mallaka wato daga 1914 lokacin da gwamnan janar na Najeriya, Sir Lord Lugar ya hade kudanci da arewacin kasar wuri daya.

Wasu matasa ne dai daga dukkan sassan kasar suka hadu ta hanyar kafa jam'iyyun siyasa da sauran kungiyoyi domin kwatar 'yancin kai, bayan kafa Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a 1945.

Mutanen sun hada da Sir Ahmadu Bello Sardauna da Sir Tafawa Balewa da irin su Malam Aminu Kano daga arewacin kasar, inda mutane irin su Chief Obafemi Awolowo da Maje Kundumi daga kudu maso yammaci da Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe daga kudu maso gabashin Najeriya suka hada kai domin neman wannan 'yanci.

An samu jam'iyyu irin su NEPU da NCNC da ANC da dai sauransu.

A ranar 1 ga watan Oktoban 1960 ne sarauniya Elzabil ta Ingila ta amince da a bai wa Najeriya 'yancin kan ba tare da fafatawa ba kamar yadda aka yi da wasu kasashe.

Cif Jaja Wacuku, dan kabilar Ngwa ta kudu maso gabashin Najeriya wanda kuma shi ne kakakin majalisar wakilai ta farko, shi ne ya sanar da wannan furuci na sarauniya.

Dubban 'Yan Najeriya ne suka yi dandazo a dandalin Racecourse da ke Legas kwanaki shida bayan furta 'yancin kan domin gudanar da babban shagali.

Wani rahoton kamfanin dillancin labarai na AP ya ce wakiliyar sarauniyar Ingila, Gimbiya Alexandra tare da gwamna janar mai barin gado, Sir James Robertson ne suka mika sabon kundin tsarin mulkin Najeriya ga firaiminista, Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa.

Bayanan hoto,

SirAbubakar Tafawa Balewa ya karbi kundin tsarin mulki daga hannun gimbiya Alexandra bisa rakiyar Sir James Robertson

Sannan kuma a washe garin wannan rana aka kaddamar da majalisar dokoki wadda gwamna Janar Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe ya shugabanta.

Mutum bakwai da suka taka rawar gani wajen kwato 'yancin Najeriya

BBC ta yi bincike daga wurare daban-daban dangane da mutanen da suka fi taka rawa wajen fafutukar nema wa Najeriya 'yanci. Mun kuma samu mutum bakwai da suka yi fice wadanda za mu bayyana takaitaccen tarihinsu da rawar da suka taka:

1. Tafawa Balewa (Disamba 1912 - 15 Janairu 1966)

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Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa ne firai ministan Najeriya na farko nayam da kasar ta samu 'yancin kai a 1960. An zabi Sir Abubakar Balewa a matsayin dan majalisar dokokin lardin arewa a 1946, sannan ya je majalisar dokoki ta tarayya a 1947. Tafawa Balewa ya zamo dan majalisa mai rajin kare arewacin Najeriya. Alhaji Abubakar Tafawa Balewa tare da Sardaunan Sakkwato sun kafa jam'iyyar Northern People's Congress (NPC).

2. Sir Ahmadu Bello, Sardaunan Sokoto(Yuni 12, 1910 - Janairu 15, 1966)

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An haifi Sir Ahmadu Bello a garin Rabbah na jihar Sokoto da ke arewacin Najeriya. Sardauna na daya daga cikin jagororin Najeriya da suka yi fice a duniya. Ahmadu Bello ya rike sarautar Sardaunan Sokoto kuma ya jagoranci jam'iyyar Northern People's Congress, NPC, inda ya mamaye harkar siyasar kasar a jamhuriya ta daya. Sir Ahmadu Bello ya yi fafutuka wajen nema wa Najeriya 'yanci, inda bayan dawowarsa daga wani bulaguro da ya yi zuwa Birtaniya, aka nada shi a matsayin dan majalisa mai wakiltar lardin Sokoto. A yau hoton Sardauna ne a kan kudin Najeriya na ₦200.

Wasu daga cikin abubuwan da ake tunawa da Sardauna sun hada da Jami'ar Ahmadu Bello University da ke Zaria wadda aka sanya mata sunansa da kuma rawar da ya taka wajen ci gaban arewacin kasar.

3. Chief Anthony Enahoro (22 Yuli 1923 - 15 Disamba 2010)

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Cif Anthony Eromosele Enahoro na daya daga cikin fitattun 'yan gwawarmayar kin jinin mulkin mallaka kuma mai rajin kafa dimokradiyya. Mista Enahoro ya zama Editan jaridar Southern Nigerian Defender ta Nnamdi Azikiwe, inda ya zamo editan jarida mafi karancin shekaru a Najeriya. Enahoro ne mutum na farko da ya fara mika bukatar neman 'yancin kan Najeriya a 953. Hakan ne ya sa ake yi masa lakabi da "Uban Najeriya". Chief Enahoro masani ne kuma ya yi ta fafutuka kan Najeriya har lokacin da ya mutu a 2010.

4. Herbert Macaulay (14 Nuwamba 1864 - 7 Mayu 1946)

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Sunansa Olayinka Herbert Samuel Heelas Badmus. Ya kasance dan kishin kasa, dan siyasa, Injiniya, mai ilimin tsara gine-gine kuma dan jarida ne kuma mawaki. 'Yan Najeriya da dama na bayyana shi da jagoran masu kishin kasar.

Mista Macaulay ya yi suna wajen hamayya da mulkin turawan mulkin mallaka. A shekarar 1919, ya tsaya wa masu sarauta a London wadanda aka kwace wa gonaki inda ya tilasta wa gwamnatin turawan mallaka da ta biya sarakan diyya.

Hakan ne ya fusata Majalisar Birtaniya ta British Council inda har ta kai ga ta daure shi sau biyu. Macaulay ya shahara inda a ranar 24 ga watan Yuni 1923 ya kafa jam'iyyar siyasa ta farko a Najerita ta Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP). Herbert Macaulay ya mutu a 1946 to amma hotonsa ne a tsohuwar ₦1.

5. Chif Obafemi Awolowo (6 Maris 1909 - 9 Mayu 1987)

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Chif Obafemi Jeremiah Oyeniyi Awolowo dan kishin kasa ne kuma dattijo wanda ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a gwagwarmayar neman 'yancin kan Najeriya. Shi ne firimiyan yankin kudu maso yammacin Najeriya na farko sannan ya yi kwamishinan kudi a gwamnatin tarayya. Chif Obafemi ya zama mataimakin shugaban kasa na majalisar zartarwa a lokacin yakin basasa. Awolowo ya jagoranci masu hamayya na jam'iyyar Action Group a majalisar dokokin tarayya. Duk da cewa bai ci takarar shugabancin Najeriya a jamhuriya ta biyu ba, Cif Awolowo ya kasance dan takara na biyu mai yawan kuri'a bayan Alhaji Shehu Shagari. Hoton Obafemi ne a jikin ₦100.

6. Funmilayo Ransom Kuti (25 Oktoba 1900 - 13 Afrilu 1978)

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Funmilayo Ransom Kuti ta kasance mace daya tilo a jerin sunayen 'yan gwagwarmayar neman 'yancin kan Najeriya. Fumilayo ta kasance malamar makaranta, 'yar siyasa, mai fafutukar kare 'yancin mata sannan kuma mai rike da sarautar gargajiya. Ita ce mahaifiya ga shahararren mawakin nan na Najeriya, Femi Kuti. Funmilayo ce mace ta farko da ta fara tuka mota a Najeriya. An zabe ta a majalisar sarakunan gargajiya, inda ta kasance wata wakiliya ta al'ummar Yarabawa. Fafutukar da ta yi ta janyo wa 'ya'yanta bakin jini musamman lokacin gwamnatocin soji.

7. Nnamdi Azikwe (16 Nuwamba 1904 - 11 Mayu 1996)

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Chif Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe ne jagoran 'yan gwagwarmayar masu kishin kasa na zamani. Nnamdi wanda ake yi wa lakabi da mai kishin kasa ya rike Editan jaridar African Morning Post. Shi ne mutum farko dan Najeriya da sunansa ya shiga Majalisar Tuntuba ta Amurka. Bayan ayyana Najeriya a matsayin Jamhuriya, Dr Nnamdi Azikwe ya yi bakin kokarinsa wajen ganin ya hada kan kasar. Dr Zik ya zamo shugaban Najeriya na farko.

Sharhin masana kan cigaban Najeriya a shekaru 60?

Demokradiyya

Ta fuskar cigaba ko akasin haka a fannin dimokradiyya, Malam Kabiru Sufi, wanda masanin kimiyyar Siyasa ne a Najeriya ya ce:

" E lallai an samu ci gaba a wadannan shekaru 60 na samun 'yancin kan Najeriya kasancewar mun samu mulkin dimokradiyyar da ya wuce shekara 20

Saboda idan ka duba jamhuriyar ta daya da ta biyu duka ba su dade ba sojoji suka karbe mulki."

To sai dai masanin kimiyyar siyasar ya ce akwai kalubale da kasar ta samu a wadannan shekaru " inda ba a girmama doka da oda da yi wa tsarin mulkin kasar karan-tsaye da kuma irin halayyar da jam'iyyu ke nunawa."

Tattalin arziki

1960-1970

Dangane da tattalin arziki masana na yi wa shekarun 1960 zuwa 1970 da wani lokacin da noma ya amsa sunansa na tushen arziki kamar yadda Dr Shamsuddeen Muhammad na jami'ar Bayero ya ce:

" A wannan lokaci duk da Najeriya na da man fetur amma kasar ba ta mai da shi wani abun azo a gani ba, inda ta fi mayar da hankali a kan noma da kiwo da samar da sufuri.

Noman koko da gyada da sauransu kasar ta mayar da hankalinta."

970-1980

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To sai dai bayan da tafiya tai tafiya kasar ta bar fannin noma da kiyo zuwa man fetur wanda ya yi bozo a shekarun 1970 zuwa 1980.

" An samu tashin gwauron zabbi na farashin mai a lokacin al'amarin da ya sa Najeriya ta samu kudi sosai har ta mance da noma da kiwo da ma'adanai. Wannan ne ya sa gwamnati ta samu kudin gina masana'antu kamar Ajaokuta da matatun man fetur guda hudu."

Dr Shamsuddeen ya ce daga 1986, ne sabbin tsare-tsaren suka sauya taswirar tattalin arzikin Najeriya, inda " bayan shugaba Babangida ya zama shugaban kasa ya fahimci kudade sun yanke wa gwamnati sakamakon faduwar farashin mai a kasuwar duniya, abin da ya sa aka fito da tsarin tattalin arziki na SAP wadda ta rage hannun gwamnati a tattalin arziki.

Wannan lamari ne ya janyo yawaitar bankuna kuma kudade suka yi yawa a hannun jama'a abin da ya haifar da hauhawar farashi har zuwa shekarun karshe na mulkin soja. 'Yan kasa ba su ji dadin wannan lokaci ba duk da dai ba za a ce ba a yi komai ba saboda an samu an yi tituna da makarantu musamman jami'o'i."

1999-2020

A 1999 ne Najeriya ta koma kan turbar dimokradiyya, da masana ke yi wa kallon zango na karshe na mizani ci-gaban tattalin arzikin Najeriya ko akasin haka. Dr Shamsuddeen ya ce "A wannan lokacin da shugaba Obasanjo ya zo ya ci gaba da dorawa a kan abin da ya tarar amma ya fito da tsare-tsaren rage radadin talauci kamar dokar NEEDS wadda a karkashinta ne aka yi tsarin nan na NAPEP.

Shugaba Obasanjo ya yi kokarin da aka yafe wa Najeriya basukan da kasashen waje ke bin ta."

"Bayan da shugaba Obasanjo ya tafi, Umaru Musa 'yar adua ya karbi ragama inda ya bujuro da 7 Point agenda inda ya aka mayar da hankali wajen rage radadin talauci inda gwamnati ta amince ta ci gaba da biyan tallafin mai. A lokacin ne aka rage kudin man fetur."

Bayan da shugaba 'Yar adua ya rasu shugaba Goodluck Jonathan ya karbi mulki, inda Dr Shamsuddeen ya ce " an sami ci gaban dokar SAP a lokacin Janothan inda gwamnati ta dan kara zare hannunta daga harkar tattalin arziki al'amarin da har ya kawo turjiya da 'yan kasar."

Ana cikin wannan yanayi ne gwamnatin shugaba Muhammadu Buhari ta ci zabe a 2015 " ita ma gwamnatin ta dora kan dokar SAP kamar cire tallafin man fetur sannan gwamnati ta janye tallafi daga wutar lantarki. Har wa yau, gwamnatin Buhari ta kyale Naira kasuwa ta yi halinta. Sannan gwamnatin ta yi kokarin rage dogaro da man fetur abin da ya janyo dokoki masu tsauri da gwamnatin ta yi.

Tsaro

Masana tsaro a Najeriya sun ce babbar nasarar da kasar ta samu a tsawon shekara 60 na samun 'yancin kan Najeriya ita ce cigaban kasancewar kasar tsintsiya daya al'umma daya.

Dr Kabir Adamu ya ce " an samu kalubale kan harkar tsaro a Najeriya kamar yakin basasa na Biafra da kungiyar Boko Haram da kuma barayin daji da kusan ilahirin arewacin kasar ke fama."

Masanin ya kara da cewa "babban abin da ke nuna koma baya a harkar tsaron Najeriya shi ne rashin kundin tsaro wanda zai fitar da taswirar tsaro. Najeriya ta dade tana bin kundin tsaro da turawan mulkin mallaka suka bari."

Sauran matsalolin tsaron da masanin ya lissafa sun hada da shigar sojoji cikin al'umma maimakon 'yan sanda. Sai dai ya ce "sabanin lokacin da Najeriya ta samu 'yancin kai, yanzu akwai bangarorin tsaro fiye da 20."

Bayanan hoto,

SirAbubakar Tafawa Balewa ya karbi kundin tsarin mulki daga hannun gimbiya Alexandra bisa rakiyar Sir James Robertson