Nahiyar da masana suka kwashe shekaru 375 kafin su gano ta

  • Zaria Gorvett
  • BBC Future
Stormy seas off New Zealand

Asalin hoton, Getty Images

Bayanan hoto,

Zealandia wuri ne da ke yankin Pacific

Lokacin ya kama shekarar 1642 kuma Abel Tasman ya kuduri aniyar yin wani abu. Kwararren matukin jirgin ruwa ne dan kasar Denmark, wanda ya hango wani mutum mai gashin baki, daga bisani ya kudiri aniyar bai wa mutanen da ke cikin jirgi barasa inda suka yi tatul.

Hakan ne ya ba shi kwarin gwiwar tafiya gaba inda ya hango wata katuwar nahiya da ke kudancin duniya, ya kuma sha damarar gano ta.

A wannan lokacin, kallon da yake yi wa duniya ya ta'allaka ne da nahiyar Turai, amma ya yi amanna cewa akwai wata nahiya mai fadi a wani yanki mai suna Terra Australis, wanda zai fi tasu nahiyar da ke arewaci.

Lamarin ya faro ne tun zamanin Romawa, amma sai yanzu ake kokarin gwada gano nahiyar.

Don haka, a ranar 14 ga watan Agusta, Tasman ya shirya tsaf daga kamfanin jirgin ruwan da yake tukawa mai mazauni a birnin Jakarta na Indonesia, tare da wasu kananan jiragen ruwa biyu ya nausa yammaci, sai kuma kudanci, daga nan sai gabashi, daga bisani ya karkare a kudancin tsuburin da ke New Zealand.

Abin da ya fara hada shi da mutanen kabilar Māori da ke zaune a wajen ba mai dadi ba ne, (da kuma aka yi amanna sun kwashe karni da dama a wajen) domin ba su wanye lafiya ba. A rana ta biyu da zuwansu, suka shiga kananan kwale-kwale suka gwabza fada lamarin da ya kai ga asarar rayukan Turawa hudu.

Daga bisani Turai ta harbi kwale-kwale 11 da karin wasu, ba a tabbatar da dalilin hakan ko inda suke da aniyar harba ba.

Wannan shi ya kawo karshen aniyar Tasman, wanda ya sanya wa wajen suna Moordenaers (Makasa), cikin damuwa, ya kada kwale-kwalensa ya koma gida, ba tare da ya sanya kafarsa a sabon yankin ba.

Yayin da ya hakikance ya gano gawurtacciyar sabuwar nahiyar a kudanci, tabbas lamarin ya nuna ba wurin da mutane za su je ba ne, don haka bai sake komawa ba.

(A lokacin tuni Australia ta san da zaman nahiyar, amma Tarayyar Turai na ganin ba ita ce katafariyar nahiyar da suke nema ba. Daga bisani bayan sun sauya tunani, aka sanya mata suna Terra Australis).

Tasman ya yi gaskiya, tabbas akwai wata nahiya da ta bace daga doron kasa.

Asalin hoton, Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Bayanan hoto,

Abel Tasman ne ya gano nahiyar da ke kudanci, duk da cewa bai san cewa kashi 94 cikin 100 na nahiyar na karkashin ruwa ba

A shekarar 2017, tawagar masana albarkatun kasa ta ja hankalin duniya, bayan da ta sanar cewa ta gano nahiyar Zealandia - wadda kabilar Māori ke kira da suna Te Riu-a-Māui. Wata nahiya mai fadin mil miliyan 1 da dubu 800, daidai da kusan kilomita miliyan biyar; an yi amannar cewa girman nahiyar ya kai girman kasar Madagascar.

Duk da cewa tsawon lokaci taswirar duniya ya takaita ne a kan nahiyoyi 7 a doron kasa, waccan tawagar cikin kwarin gwiwa ta shaida wa duniya wannan batu ba gaskiya ba ne. Don haka akwai nahiyoyi 8 a ban kasa, gano daya nahiyar shi ne kafa tarihi na gano 'yar kankanu, siririya kuma matashiyar nahiya a duniya.

Abin da aka gano shi ne, kashi 94 cikin 100 na sabuwar nahiyar na karkashin kasa, wanda tsuburin da take da shi dan kankani ne, kamar dai New Zealand, wanda aka dan yanko daga bangaren teku. Nahiyar na boye can wani yanki fetal da ba a san da shi ba.

"Wannan kankanin misali ne na yadda ake daukar lokaci kafin a gano wani abu," inji Andy Tulloch, daya daga cikin tawagar masu binciken albarkatun kasa a cibiyar binciken kimiyya ta New Zealand Crown Research Institute GNS Science, kuma yana daga cikin wadanda suka gano nahiyar Zealandia.

Amma fa wannan somin tabi ne. Bayan shekaru hudu, nahiyar na cike da sarkakiya, ga kuma wani sirri na karkashin ruwa mai zurfin kilomita 2. Ta yaya aka samar da ita? Shin me ke rayuwa a wajen? Kuma tsawon wanne lokaci ta dauka a karkashin ruwan?

Jajirtaccen aiki

Batu na gaskiya shi ne nahiyar Zealandia na da wuyar sha'ani.

Sama da shekara 100 da Tasman ya gano New Zealand a shekarar 1642, an tura wanda ya samar da taswirar Birtaniya James Cook domin binciken kimiyya a kudancin duniya.

Umarnin da aka fara ba shi a hukumance shi ne gano yadda duniyar Venus ke gilmawa tsakanin kasa da rana, domin kidaya nisan da ke tsakanin kasa da rana.

Asalin hoton, Getty Images

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Amma an ba shi wata takarda wadda a jiki aka ba shi umarnin kada ya bude har sai ya kammala aiki na farko.

Wannan ya kunshi wani muhimmin sirrin gano kudancin nahiyar, wadda ya nufa gadan-gadan kafin isa New Zealand.

Bayanan farko da aka fara tattarawa kan wanzuwar sabuwar nahiyar sun nuna cewa wani masanin tsirrai, Sir James Hector, dan asalin yankin Scotland ne ya samar da su. Wanda ya niki gari zuwa tsuburai daban-daban da ke kudancin tekun New Zealand a shekarar 1895.

Bayan kamma nazari kan halittun karkashin kasa, ya yanke hukuncin cewa an samu New Zealand ne daga wasu tsaunuka da suka samar da gagarumar nahiyar wadda ta faro tun daga kudanci har zuwa gabashi.

Duk da wannan bayani, ya amince cewa ta yiwu babu bayanai game da Zealandia, kuma abubuwan da suka faru ba su taka kara sun karya ba har sai zuwa 1960s. "Abubuwa sun faru a yankin amma ba masu wani tasiri ba, kuma sannu a hankali," in ji Nick Mortimer, daya daga cikin masu binciken albarkatun kasa, da kuma ya jagoranci aikin gano sabuwar nahiyar a shekarar 2017.

A shekarun 1960 ne masu binciken suka amince cewa akwai sabuwar nahiyar, mai cike da manyan duwatsu, da kwazazzabo.

"Ba zai yiwu ta zama 'yar kankanuwa ba," in ji Mortimer. Wannan ya bai wa masu bincike damar fadada aikinsu, matukar za su samu wata shaida, za su iya tabbatar da cewa an gano nahiya ta takwas a doron kasa.

Asalin hoton, Getty Images

Bayanan hoto,

Jiragen ruwan Tasman ya bar New Zealand bayan kazamin fadan da suka yi kabilar Maori - amma ya yi amanna da cewa ya gano gagarumar nahiya a kudancinci

Amma duk da haka aikin ya fuskanci tirjiya, saboda sarkakaiyar da ke cikin nahiyar ga kuma kashe kudi a wajen aiki, don haka suka gane ba a bukatar yin gaggawa, don haka ya kamata a bi komai sannu a hankali, in ji Mortimer.

A shekarar 1995, Ba'amuruken nan mai bincike Bruce Luyendyk ya sake bayyana yankin da sunan nahiya da kuma lakaba masa sunan Zealandia. Daga nan ne Tulloch ya bayyana gano nahiyar.

Daidai wannan lokacin aka fara babban taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan dokokin da suka shafi teku, wanda hakan ya ba da kwarin gwiwar ci gaba da binciken.

An amince kasashe su fadada iyakokinsu, fiye da karfin tattalin arzikinsu, wanda ya kai kilomita 370 daga gabar tekunansu, ciki har da albarkatun ruwa da ke yankinsu, har da man fetur.

A lokacin idan New Zealand za ta iya nuna tana cikin manyan nahiya, za ta iya fadada iyakokinta sau shida. Amma katsaham aka dakatar da aikin saboda rashin kudade, a hankali kuma shaidar da ake da ita ta bace.

Abin al'ajabi

Ainihi Zealandia wani bangare ne na yankin Gondwana, wanda aka samar kusan shekaru miliyan 550 da suka gabata, inda suka hade tare har zuwa kudancin rabin duniya.

Sannan ta mamaye har zuwa yammaci, inda ta hada iyaka da yankuna daban-daban ciki har da rabin yammacin Antarctica da gabashin Australia.

Shekaru miliyan 105 da suka gabata "saboda kokarin da ake yi yana gano Zealandia ya dakushe", in ji Tulloch.

Asalin hoton, Getty Images

Bayanan hoto,

Bayan ballewar Gondwana , yawancin bishiyoyinsu masu tarihi sun ci gaba da wanzuwa a dazukan Doringo da ke Australian

Har yanzu akwai abubuwan da ba a san da su ba.

Sanin ainihin nahiyoyi takwas ya janyo zazzafar muhawara tsakanin masu binciken kasa, da kuma bayanai kalilan.

Misali, babu tabbacin yadda aka samar da Zealandia da kasancewarta, saboda rashin fadi da girmanta.

Wani abu da yake janyo tababa shi ne har tsawon wanne lokaci Zealandia ta kasance a cikin ruwa.

Muhawara akan dabbar dinasour

Dabbobin da aka adana su na matukar samuwa a kudancin hemisphere, amma an gano burbushin yawancinsu a New Zealand a shekarun 1990, ciki har da kashin kirjin, da na wuyan, da jelar doguwar dabbar ta dinosaur.

A shekarar 2006, an gano kashin kafar dabbar a tsuburin Chatham mai nisan kilomita 800 da gabashin kudancin Island.

Asalin hoton, Getty Images

Bayanan hoto,

Tsuntsu mai siffar giwa, mai tsahon kafa kusan 10

Duk da haka, ba ya na nufin an samu dabbar dinosaurs a nahiyar Zealandia.

''An dade ana muhawara akan wanzuwar dabbar a doron kasa da kuma babu burbushinsu a ko ina,'' in ji Farfesa Rupert Sutherland, na jami'ar Victoria da ke Wellington.

Masu binciken dai sun yi amanna shekaru miliyan 25 da suka wuce, ba ki daya nahiyar ko ma har da kasar New Zealand na karkashin kasa ne.

"Ina tunanin dukkan tsirrai da dabobin sun bayyana ne daga bisani ," in ji farfesa Sutherland. To me ya faru?

Asalin hoton, Getty Images

Duk da cewa abu ne mai wuya a tattara wasu albarkatun da ke karkashin ruwan Zealandia, masana kimiyya na kokarin yin tono domin gano wani abu.

A shekarar 2017, wata tawagar kwararru ta gudanar da bincike a yankin, tare da hakar kasan mai zurfin mita 1,250 a bangarori daban-daban. Har wa yau, wani abu mai dore kai game da fasalin Zealandia shi ne yana yin taswirarta.

"Idan ka kalli taswirar New Zealand, akwai abubuwa guda biyu da ta ke nunawa, yanayin da ya fito daga kudanci daban, da na gabashi, sannan yalwar filin ba daya ba ne," in ji Sutherland.

Asalin hoton, GNS Science https://data.gns.cri.nz/tez

Bayanan hoto,

Duwatsun Batholith masu launin ja, sun tafi tun daga New Zealand har zuwa Zealandia, amma maimakon su tagi mike fetal, sai sukai ba da wata nannada, tare da ba da wani yanayi na dan

Akwai alamun, nahiyar ba za a gane abin da ta kunsa ba nan kusa.

Abu ne mai matukar wuya ka gano wani abu a yankin, saboda kusan komai na karkashin ruwa ne, abin da ka ke da shi da za ka diba domin bincike bai fi zurfin mita 500 ba. Lamarin na cike da sarkakiya da wuyar sha'ani, bincike a nahiyar wani gagarumin aiki ne. Don haka za adauki lokaci mai tsaho kafin a gano hakan, ga kuma kashe kudi wajen bincike, saboda sai an yi amfani da manyan jiragen ruwa na zamai.

Matukar ba a gano komai ba, hakan na nufin nahiya ta takwas a duniya ta tabbatar tana doron kasa kusan shekaru 400 bayan kokarin da Tasman ya yi, kuma ana bukatar karin lokaci da zage damtse domin gano karin bayanai.