Yadda matalautan kasashe suke fama da illolin sauyin yanayi

  • Daga Navin Singh Khadka
  • Wakilin BBC World Service kan Muhalli
Flo Webber na tsaye gaban baraguzan gidanta da ya ruguje a tsuburin Barbudawanda mahaukaciyar guguwar Irma ta daidaita

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Bayanan hoto,

Kasashen da ke tsuburin Caribbean sun ce matakan da suke dauka kan inganta yanayi sun fuskanci cikas

Kasashe masu karamin karfi suna fuskantar kalubale wajen kare kawunansu daga sauyi, a cewar jami'ai da masana a tattaunawarsu da BBC.

Kungiyoyin da ke wakiltar matalautan kasashe 90 sun ce shirinsu na kauce wa illolin da sauyin yanayi ke haddasawa na fuskantar barazana daga bala'o'in da sauyin na yanayi yake haifarwa, wadanda suke da girma kuma suke faruwa akai-akai.

Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta ce kasashe masu tasowa da dama da ke da tsare-tsaren inganta yanayi suna karu. Amma ta jaddada cewa babu wasu shaidu masu yawa da ke nuna cewa wadannan tsare-tsare sun rage illolin sauyin yanayi.

"Muna bukatar daukar karin sabbin matakai kan hadarin sauyin yanayi. Shirin da muke amfani da shi a halin yauzu bai isa ya kare al'umma ba," in ji Sonam Wangdi, shugaban kungiyar kasashe matalauta kan sauyin yanayi na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya.

Kiraye-kirayen da suke yi kan daukar mataki na zuwa ne a daidai lokacin da Cibiyar Kimiyya kan sauyin yanayi ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ke wallafa wani rahoton bincike a ranar Litinin kan halin da duniya ke ciki kan dumamar yanayi.

Rahoton, wanda hukumar kasashe kan sauyin yanayi ta rubuta, zai ba da bayanin kwararru kan fannin kimiyya na binciken da suka yi kan sauyin yanayin, da yadda kasashe ke tunkarar batun da kuma abin da ka iya faruwa nan gaba, wanda za a bayyana a babban taron koli da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya za a gudanar a watan Nuwamba mai zuwa a Glasgow.

Tuni duniya ke fama da dumamar yanayi ta kusan maki 1.2 na ma'aunin selshiyos sakamakon hayakin da masana'antu suke fitarwa, hakan kuma zai ci gaba da hauhawa matukar gwamnatoci da kasashen duniya ba su dauki matakin fara amfani da kayan da ba sa fitar da gurbataccen hayaki ba.

Hayaniya a Caribbean

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Bayanan hoto,

Masana sun ce kasashen yankin Caribbean na inganta gine-ginen gidajensu ta yadda za su iya kaucewa rugujewa idan guguwa mai maki 4 ta riske su

A shekarar da ta gabata, yankin Caribbean ya fuskanci munanan guguwa har guda 30. Kungiyar da ke nazari kan sauyin yanayi ta duniya ce har yanzu yankin na cikin hadari.

Kamar a tsuburai irin na Antigua da Barbuda, kwararru sun ce yawancin gine-ginen da ke wurin sun gagara jurewa kakkarfar guguwar da ta taso.

"Muna amfani da kashi-kashi na guguwa wadda wannan tana kashi na hudu ne, don haka ne muke shirin ko-ta-kwana idan har an samu guguwar kashi na 5," in ji Diann Black Layner, shugabar kungiyar da ke shiga tsakani kan sauyin yanayi a kananan tsuburai.

"Guguwar kashi na 5, ita ke zuwa da kakkarfar iska da mamakon ruwan sama mai gudun kilomita 290 cikin sa'a guda, wadda ita ce saman gini ko kwanon rufi sam ba ya iya jurewa sai dai kawai ka ga yana barewa," in ji ta.

Faduwar bangon tekun Pacific

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Bayanan hoto,

Mahukunta a tsuburan da ke kasashen yankin Pacific sun ce abubuwan da suke amfani da su domin tare teku da guguwa na yin rauni a ko da yaushe

A tsakiyar shekarar 2020 da watan Janairun 2021, yawancin kasashen da ke yankin Pacific sun fuskanci munanan guguwa har uku.

"Bayan guguwar uku, mazauna arewacin yankin sun ga yadda bangwayen da ke kare su da ma duk wani abu da suke amfani da shi domin tare ambaliyar teku suke faduwa ," in ji Vani Catanasiga, shugaban wata kungiya mai zaman kanta mai suna Fiji Council of Social Services, wadda ke wakiltar kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu a kasashe masu fama da bala'o'in sauyin yanayi.

Wani bincike da aka yi ya karkare kan cewa yawan guguwar ya karu cikin shekaru 40 da suka gabata, sai dai har yanzu ba a fayyace adadin wadda ka samu ba cikin shekarun.

Matsalolin tsaunukan Uganda

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Bayanan hoto,

Wasu daga cikin kasashe matalauta na Afirka sun ce an samu karuwar zabtarewar kasa da ambaliyar ruwa lamarin da ya kara ta'azzara matsalar sauyin yanayi

Al'ummar yankin Rwenzori da ke kasar Uganda na kokarin kare kansu daga zabtarewar kasa da ambaliyar ruwa ta hanyar haka ramuka da shuka bishiyoyi domin taimaka wa kasar yankin tsotse ruwan. Sai dai babu wani tasiri da hakan ya yi.

Kamar yadda Jackson Muhindo na hukumar Oxfam da ke kula da yankin ya shaida wa BBC, "Ana sheka ruwa kamar da bakin kwarya, don haka ana samun matsananciyar ambaliyar ruwa da ke haurawa ginin da muka yi da kasa domin kare hakan."

"Saboda haka ake ta samun ambaliyar ruwa da zabtarewar kasa akai-akai, wadda ta janyo mutane suna rasa matsugunansu, yin aikin da zai kare faruwar hakan abu ne mai muhimmanci da yake bukatar daukar matakin gaggawa," in ji shi.

Rashin daukar mataki

Taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan sauyin yanayi ya ce sama da kashi 80 na kasashe masu arziki sun fara daukar matakin amfani da shirinsu na magance sauyin yanayi, sai dai ana bukatar karin mataki.

Amma wani nazari da hukumar kare muhalli ta duniya ta gudanar, da aka wallafa a watan da ya gabata, ya kiyasta cewa kasashe masu tasowa 46 a duniya, ba su da kudaden da za su magance matsalar sauyin yanayi.

Hukumar ta ce wadannan kasashe suna bukatar akalla dala biliyan 40 a kowacce shekara, domin fara amfani da shirinsu na magance matsalar. Amma tsakanin shekarar 2014 zuwa 2018, an samu dala biliyan 5 da miliyan dari 9 ne kacal.

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Bayanan hoto,

Kasashe matalauta ba sa samun kudaden magance matsalar sauyin yanayi

Karkashin taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na sauyin yanayi, kasashen tarayyar turai da karin kasashe masu arziki 23, sun sha alwashin bayar da tallafin dala biliyan 100 a kowacce shekara domin magance matsalar sauyin yanayin, ciki har da shirin rage gurbataccen hayakin da masana'antu ke fitarwa, wanda ke kara dagula lamura.

Daga shekarar 2020, wadannan kudade za su kai ga asusun da ake tara kudi na Green Climate Fund da hukumar kare muhalli ta duniya da saura hukumomi masu ruwa da tsaki kan lamarin.

Kasashe masu tasowa sun soki kididdigar asusun kula da sauyin yanayi saboda rashin tabuka komai kan matsalar.

Kamar yadda Carlos Aguilar na kungiyar Oxfam ya bayyana, ''idan ana fama da matsalar rashin shugabanci na gari da talauci da annobar korona, zai yi matukar wahala a shawo kan lamarin."