Shin kwakwalwa na da tasiri kan halayen jinsi?

Hakkin mallakar hoto Thinkstock

Shin kwakwalwar maza ce da kai ko ta mata? Da gaske ne akwai kwakkwaran bambancin kwakwalwa a tsakanin jinsuna, idan akwai, ko bambance-bambancen na da tasiri ga halayyarsu? Shirin kimiyya na BBC Horizon ya bincika.

Hakkin mallakar hoto bbc

Idan ana magana kan tambayar nan mai rikitarwa da saurin harzuka mutane a kan ta yaya, idan akwai, bambancin kwakwalwa ke da tasiri ga halayyar maza ko mata. Ra'ayin masu gabatar da wannan shiri Dr. Michael Mosley da Farfesa Alice Roberts ya yi hannun riga.

Dr.Mosley na cewa ya yi imani an gina kwakwalenmu ne kamar kirar jikinmu ta hanyar gogayyar da suka yi da kwayoyin halittun hormones tun a cikin uwa hakan kuma na taimaka wa sanin me ya sa maza suka fi kwazo a kan wasu ayyuka masu sarkakiyar lissafi, a lokacin da mata suka fi kauri a wasu (iya jimami), ko da yake tabbas ana samun matukar cakudedeniya da tasirin zamantakewa.

A hannu guda, Farfesa Alice na tunanin cewa akasarin wadannan bambance-bambance zuki-ta-malli ne. Ta bayyana damuwar cewa irin wadannan ikirari ka iya sanyaya gwiwar 'yan mata wajen karanta fannin kimiyya. Ta ce "muna rayuwa a wata kasa, inda kasa da uku na dalibai goma da suka fi cin maki a darasin Physics mata ne, kuma su ne ke da kaso bakwai cikin 100 a fannin injiniya."

Image caption Binciken na nuna cewa kwakwalwar mata ta fi fahimtar halin da mutane ke ciki

Daya daga cikin masana kimiyyan da galibi suka yi tasiri ga ra'ayin Dr. Mosley shi ne Farfesa Simon Baron-Cohen na jam'iar Cambridge da ke cewa akwai kwakwalwa iri biyu. Kwakwalwar masu fahimtar halin da mutane ke ciki, wadanda sun fi kwarewa wajen gane tunani da shaukin zukata, akwai kuma kwakwalwar masu kulla harkoki, wadanda suka fi sha'awar kukkunce tsari da rairaye tsare-tsare. Mutane ne masu hazaka amma ba su da kwarewar mu'amala.

Dukkan jinsuna na da hadakar wadannan halaye biyu, sai dai akasari mun fi karkata a kan halayya guda a kan dayar. Maza sun fi kasancewa a bangaren kukkulla harkoki, mata kuma gwanayen jimantawa ne, ko da yake ana iya samun wasu lokuta da ba haka abun yake ba.

Sai dai, ko wannan tasiri ne na sanadin zamantakewa? Farfesa Baron-Cohen ba ya tunanin haka, ya ce cudanya da kwayoyin halittar hormones ke yi a cikin uwa ka iya yin tasiri ga kwakwalwa da kuma halayyar mutum daga bisani. Daga cikin sakamakon da ya gano mafi burgewa na da asali ne daga binciken da ake ci gaba da gudanarwa a tsakanin rukunin wasu kananan yara da ake nazarin rayuwarsu tun kafin haihuwa.

Hakkin mallakar hoto AFP

A makonni 16 da dan tayi ke girma a cikin mahaifiya, iyayen yaran sun yi wani awon ciki, inda aka debi samfurin wani ruwa da ke wanke mara. Masu bincike sun auna yawan kwayoyin halittun hormones a cikin ruwan, kuma tun daga nan suka gano alakoki masu ban sha'awa tsakanin yawan wadannan kwayoyin halittu da halayyar mutane.

Farfesa Baron-Cohen ya ce adadin yawan kwayoyin halittun sanya mazakuta (testosterone) kafin haihuwa, na nufin karancin gwanintar jariri wajen iya mu'amula. Suna kuma nuna, ga misali, karancin yiwuwarsa na iya hada ido da mutane a ranar farko da haihuwa. Sun fi karancin zance a lokacin da suke tatata, suna kuma da karancin jimami a lokacin da suka kai shekarun zuwa makaranta.

A bangare guda kuma, ya gano cewa yawan kwayoyin halittar a cikin mai juna biyu, ga alama na inganta gwanintar jaririnta wajen tantance abubuwa masu sarkakiya. Ta yadda yara masu yawan kwayoyin halittar testosterone ke da kaifin basirar gano wasu siffofi da aka yi a cikin wasu sake-sake.

Hakkin mallakar hoto SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Karin wata shaida ta bambancin kwakwalwar maza da mata, ta bayyana ne daga wani bincike da aka wallafa a wani gangamin cibiyar masana kimiyya na Amurka (National Science Academy) a kan yadda bangarori daban-daban na kwakwalwar dan'adam ke sadarwa a tsakani.

Masana kimiyya a jami'ar Pennsylvania sun dauki hotunan kwakwalen maza da mata 949, kama daga shekaru takwas zuwa 22, inda suka gano wasu bambance-bambance masu kayatarwa.

Daya daga cikin masu binciken, Farfesa Ruben Gurr na cewa maza sun nuna alakoki masu karfi tsakanin gaban kwakwalwarsu da bayanta, abun da ke cewa "sun fi iya alakanta abun da suka gani da abun da suke yi, wannan ne kuma abun da kake bukata idan kai mafarauci ne. Akwai bukatar aikinka ya dace da abun da ka gani nan take."

Mata a nasu bangaren, sun fi sarke-sarke tsakanin bangaren kwanyarsu na hagu da na dama. A cewar wani daga cikin masu binciken, Dr. Ragini Verman kasancewar za ka iya alakanta bangarori daban-daban na kwakwalwa na nufin iya gudanar da ayyuka barkatai kuma kana iya yin fice wajen aikace-aikacen shaukin zuciya.

Hakkin mallakar hoto SPL

Sai dai, kamar yadda Farfesa Alice ta yi hanzarin nunarwa wannan nazari yana da wuraren suka, ko da kuwa gaskiya ne cewa an saka kwakwalenmu ta hanyoyi daban-daban, wannan ba shaida ce cewa lamarin haka yake tun fil'azal ba.