IS: Shin menene ke faruwa a Masul?

Kimanin shekara daya da ta gabata ne mayakan kungiyar IS da ke da'awar kafa daular musulunci suka kwace iko da Mosul, birni na biyu mafi girma a Iraki inda suka kori dakarun Iraki ala'amarin da ya girgiza duniya baki daya.

Duk da cewar suna fuskantar haren-haren sama daga dakarun kawancen soji wanda Amurka ke jagoranta, da ma farmaki a kasa daga abokan adawa iri-iri a cikin Iraki da makwabciyarta Syria, kungiyar IS ta kafa daularta a yankin da ta kame ikonsa kuma ta samu damar kaddamar da tsauraran ra'ayoyinta.

Ga wasu daga cikin abubuwan da suka sauya akalar adawar da ake wa kungiyar masu da'awar jihadin cikin watanni 12 a suka gabata:

A farkon watan Yunin 2014, kungiyar wacce a da aka fi saninta da ISIL ta kaddamar da hari a kan birnin Mosul, birni ma fi girma a arewacin Iraki.

An kiyasta cewa kimanin sojoji 30,000 ne suka tsere lokacin da mayakan IS kasa da 800 suka far musu.

Kazalika a kokarinsu na kame ikon babbar cibiyar tattalin arziki mai yawan mutane miliyan 1.8, kungiyar IS ta mallaki makamai kirar Amurka da suka hada a motocin yaki.

Samun kwarin gwiwar da kungiyar IS ta yi sakamakon durkushewar soji ya sanya ta kutsa sosai zuwa kudancin kasar can wajen birnin Bagadaza, inda suka kwace akasarin yankunan da ke karkashin mabiya Sunnah na Nineveh da Salahudin da kuma wani yanki na Diyala cikin kwanaki kalilan.

Kimanin mutanen Iraki rabin miliyan, ma fi yawansu daga kananan kabilu a addinai marasa rinjaye, sun tsere daga gidajensu domin gujewa kisan gillar da IS ke yi musu.

Image caption IS sun mallaki makamaikirar Amurka

Kungiyar ta sanya tsoro da fushi cikin zukatan mabiyan Shi'a a Iraki, lokacin da ta sanar da cewar ta kashe kimanin mutane 1,700 wadanda yawancin su mayakan 'yan shi'a ne wadanda sansaninsu yake wajen garin Tikrit.

Wannan shi ne al'amari ma fi muni da aka taba yi a baya-bayan nan a Iraki.

'Khalifa Ibrahim'

A karshen watan Yunin 2014, bayan ta kwace ikon birane da garuruwa da dama a yammaci da rewacin Iraki, sai kungiyar ta IS ta kaddamar da samuwar daular musulunci, wacce za ta dinga tafiyar da al'amuranta kan tafarkin shari'ar musulunci, karkashin jagorancin wani shugaba.

Ta ambaci Abu-bakar al-Baghdadi a matsayin Khalifa Ibrahim ta kuma bukaci dukkan musulman duniya da su yi masa mubaya'a.

Kwanaki biyar bayan nan, sai aka fitar da wani bidiyo inda aka nuna Baghdadi yana gabatar da khutuba a babban masallacin Mosul, kuma ita ce bayyanarsa ta farko a bainar jama'a cikin shekaru masu yawa.

A watan Agustan 2014, sai kungiyar IS ta mayar da hankali kan yankin arewa a yammacin Mosul wadanda ke karkashin ikon dakarun Iraki.

'Tikrit'

A watan Afrilu na shekarar 2015, dakarun gwamnatin Iraki suka sake kwato ikon birnin Tikrit bayan an shafe wata guda ana bata kashi wanda ake ganin hakan a wani kokari na fitar da mayakan IS daga birnin Mosul.

Amurka ta yi ikirarin cewa IS ta rasa kashi daya cikin hudu na yankunanta da ke Iraki, amma a gefe daya ta yi gargadi cewa ya yi wuri a ce ana samun nasara.

Duk da cewa ana tababar kungiyar IS ta rasa mayakanta da dama da kuma makamai cikin watannin da aka kwashe ana kai musu hare-hare ta sama da kasa, har yanzu kungiyar tana jure abubuwa da dama da kuma kokarin ci gaba da yunkurinta.

Kuma Amurka ta raina kanta lokacin da kungiyar IS ta kaddamar da wani mummunan hari a birnin Ramadi a watan Mayu, wanda ya janyo sojoji suka janye kuma dubun-dubatar fararen hula suka tsere.