Wahalhalun da mutanen da ke aiki a kasashen waje ke fuskantaa

Daga Kate Mayberry

9 ga Mayun 2017

Bayan shafe shekaru biyu yana koyar da Ingilishi a tsibirin Taiwan, Alan McIvor ya yi niyyar sake sabon aiki.

Ya yi kaura zuwa nahiyar Asiya saboda karancin ayyuka a Birtaniya, inda ya karke da koyar da Ingilishi. Sai dai akwai dimbin al'amuran da yake bukata a rayuwarsa ta aiki.

Wannan mutum mai shekara 32 dan asalin Scotland ya nausa zuwa Shangahai, birnin hada-hadar kasuwanci a kasar China, inda ya samu aiki a wani karamin kamfani da ke daukar ma'aikata.

Mclvor tunaninsa ya fi karkata kan Singapore da Hong kong, amma daga bisani ya zabi Shanghai, saboda bunkasar hada-hadar tattalin arzikinta, ga shi kuma yana iya magana da harshen Mandarin.

Tashin farko an dora mini aiwatar da dimbin ayyuka, a cewar Alan Mclvorr.

Cikin makonni kadan, sai ya fara halartar tarukan tare shugaban kamfanin, a cewar Mclvor, wanda shi kadai ne bako dan kasar waje a daukacin jerin ma'aiktan kamfanin 180.

Tashin farko an dora mini aiwatar da dimbin ayyuka, kuma sun kasance sababbin dabarun aiki a gareni. Ba ni da wata kwarewa wajen nemo kwararrun ma'aikata ko a harkar kasuwanci."

McIvor mutum ne mai matukar son koyon ayyuka nan gaba, amma bayan shekaru biyu a Shanghai tuni ya koma Taiwan. Wannan karon, sai dawowar ta kasance masa cikin sauki.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: Alan McIvor).
Image caption Rashin kwarewa a harkar kasuwanci ba ta kawo wa Alan Maclvor samun ci gaba a a aikinsa a Shanghai ba

"Lokacin da na bar Taiwan zuwa Shanghai ta yiwu na nemi ayyuka kusan 100," in ji Mclavor.

"Amma lokacin da na dawo daga Shanghai zuwa Tapei, kira kawai na yi ta waya."

Lamarin ya faru ne a shekarar 2015. Bayan shekara biyu ina aiki a wani kamfanin daukar ma'aikata, ya zama babban jami'i ne a kamfanin neman aiki a shafukan intanet na Asiya, mai lakabin Bo Le da mutane hudu ke gudanar da shi.

Amma a China, inda aka kiyasta bakin ma'aikata 'yan kasar waje da yawansu ya kai 850,00 (kimanin kashi daya bisa uku na al'ummar Shanghai) ba nan ne kadai inda kwararrru ke fafutikar zuwa don kaiwa kololuwar ci gaban rayuwa.

Duk da tsananin gasa a wuraren da aka saka gasar neman ayyuka irin su Landan da New York akwai yiwuwar samun alfanu mai gwabi-gwabin neman aiki a sauran biranen duniya, kamar Dubai da Singpore, kai har ma da wuraren da hada-hadar ba ta kankama ba.

Idan kana son inganta sana'arka za ka samu damar yin hakan idan ka zabi neman aiki a warin da aka yi wa lakabin "mawuyacin" wurin zama (rayuwa).

"Idan kana son samun saurin ci gaba a aikinka za ka samu damar ne idan ka zabi neman yin aiki a "mawuyacin" wurin da ake ganin yana da wuyar sha'ani a halin zaman rayuwa," a cewar Christine Wright, Manajan Daraktar daukar ma'aikata na kamfanin Hays Asia.

Ta yi nuni da cewa "hadurran da aka kiyasta," kamar aikin wucin gadi, ko ragin albashi don koyon sababbin dabarun aiki.

"Zai fi kyau idan za ka iya yin hakan da kamfanin da ke da kyakkyawar damar ci gaba a gareka, wanda ake samun bunkasa ayyuka da ci gaban ma'aikata a bayyane karara."

Ana neman kwararrun ma'aikata

Wadanne birane ne suka fi dacewa da kwararrun ma'aikata da ke hankoron ci gaba?

Kungiyar Kwadago ta Duniya (ILO) da Bankin raya kasa na Asiya (ADB) ya kimanta kasashe 10 a kungiyar hadin kan yankin Kudu maso gabashin Asiya (ASEAN) na bukatar kwararrun ma'aikata miliyan 14 a tsakanin shekarun 2010 zuwa 2025, inda aka samu kari da kashi 41 cikin 100, wadanda mafi yawansu ake bukatar zamansu a manyan biranen kasashe.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: Getty Images)
Image caption Yunkurin Shanghai na zama cibiyar hada-hadar kere-kere ya sa ta zama wurri mafi dacewa ga masu kere-kere

Alal misali a kasar China yayin da tattalin arziki ke bunkasa, mafi yawan biranenta akwai yiwuwar su bukaci kwararrun mutane a fannin fasahar kere-kere, ffioye da wadanda ke da karancin kwarewar kira irin ta da.

Masu daukar ma'aikata a fadin duniya sun fi neman masu bayar da kariyar shafukan intanet da tattara dumbin bayanai da nazarin bin kadin al'amura a masarrafar kwamfuta da fasahar kere-kere a harkar hada-hadar kudi, wadanda suka kasance a jerin dimbin ayyukan da ake matukar bukata, a daidai lokacin da gwamnati kle shirin mayar da Shanghai cibiyar kirkire-kirkire da kere-kere.

Dubai ta kasance wajen da bakin ma'aikata daga kasashen waje ke hankoron zuwa tsawon shekaru, inda rashin aikin yi a tsakanin baki 'yan kasashen waje ya kashi 0.19 cikin 100.

Yayin da aka samu faduwar darajar man fetur da iskar gas a kasuwannin duniya ya yi tasiri a tattalin arziki, masarautar na hankoron bunkasa wasu hanyoyin karuwar tattalin arziki.

A bara, an kaddamar da shirin bunkasa masana'antu nan da shekara ta 2030, wanda ke da manufar samar da ayyukan yi 27,000 a fannoni shida da suka hada da hada-hadar sufurin jioragen sama da Injiniyanci da harhada magunguna.

"Wuri ne mafi dacewa don bunkasa kwarewar aiki ga wadanda akle matukar bukatar basirarsu," a cewar Mario Ferraro, wanda ya jagoranci cibiyar kwararrun da ke nazarin kaurar ma'aikata ta duniya a nahiyar Asiya, da Ganbas ta Tsakiya da Afirka da Turkiyya a kamfanin Mercer, cibiyar duniya da ke bayar shawara da bin Kadin al'amura.

"Daukacin lamarin na tafiya kan doron samarwa (ayyuka da kayayyaki) da bijiro da bukatu a tsarin tsimi da tanadi."

A inda kamfanoni ke da karancin masu basira da za su iya zaba, wata dama ce ga wadanda suka jajirce su yi amfani da da dabarunsu don samun gogewa (kwarewa) cikin hanzari, a cewarsa.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: Getty Images)
Image caption Kewaya nahiyoyin don aiki? Kololuwa ce makura

Fafutikar kwarewar basira

Fafutikar samun dabarun aiki ya ingiza wasu kasashen, har ma da birane suke bullo da shirye-shirye na musamman ga ma'aikata bakin kasashen wwaje da masu kafa masana'antu, don jawo hankalin masu dimbin basira zuwa kasashensu.

A shekarar 2010, China ta fara sake fasalin tsauraran dokokinta mai lakabin Shirin Dubbun Basira don karfafa ggwiwar kwararrrun ma'aiakta daga kasashen waje su yi aiki a managartan jami'o'i da cibiyoyin ilimi.

Kasar Malesiya tana bayar da izinin shiga kasar da zama na tsawon lokaci ga "masu basira 'yan kasar waje," inda wasu kwararrun ke zama su yi aiki a kasar na tsawon shekaru 10, yayin da a Netherlands an samar da wata cibiya mai lakabin Cibiyar bakin ma'aikta (Expatcentre) a shekarar 2008, don taimaka wa 'yan kasashen waje da ke aiki a Amsterdam da sassan da ke kewayenta.

Ma'aikata baki 'yan kasar waje da ke hankoron inganta (kwarewar) ayyukansu, biranen nahiyar Asiya biyu suka fi dacewa da su.

Manazartar hada-hadar banki a Hong Kong da Shangai ta yi nuni da cewa kasha 68 na mutane da suke aiki a Hong Kong sun ce kewayen kasar na da kyau ga aikinsu, inda kashi 62 cikin 100 na mutanen Singapore ke da ra'ayi iri guda (matsaikacin kima dai a duniya shi ne kashi 43 cikin 100).

Ferarro na kamfanin daukar kwararrun ma'aikata na Mercer, wanda ke aiki da zama a Singapore na tsawon shekaru 19, inda a cewarsa birane biyu ke da managarciyar rayuwa da karancin haraji ne al'amarun da ke jan hankalin bakin ma'aikata daga kasashen waje.

Wahalhalun kasashen waje

Sai dai ga wadanda suka zaku wajen ganin sun samu ci gaba a sana'arsu (ayyukansu) a kasashen waje, tsarin shige da ficen kasa na shirrin kawo musu tarnaki idan har za su iya ci gaba da zama a Birtaniya tare da la'akari da wa'adin kuri'ar raba gardamar da aka kada ta ficewar Birtaniya daga Tarayyar Turai.

Yayin da Amurka kuwa ke duba yiwuwar aiwatar da sauye-sauyen da za su tsaurara dokokin da ke tattare da izinin shiga kasar ga dimbin kwararrun masana a fannin fasahar sadarwa.

Duk da cewa Singapore wuri ne mai sauki shiga ga masu basira 'yan kasar waje, al'amari ne da ke nuni da sauye-sauyen dokoki da ke da alaka da kwararrun ma'aikata 'yan kasar waje.

Singapore na nuna damuwa kan cunkuson (baki), yayin da 'yan kasa za su rasa aikin yi da baki suka mamaye, dole kamfanoni su fitto da "tsarin daidaito" ga 'yan kasa da ke neman aiki. Wadanda ba sa tattare da hadarin sanya su a jerin wadanda ake ganin ayyukansu sun saba wa doka.

Ferraro ya ce masu nuna 'yan kasanci ko ra'ayin dimbin jama'arsu maganganunsu na da tasiri a tsakanin masu kada kuri'a 'yan kasa kan tsaurara dokokin shige da fice a nan gaba.

"Ko mun yarda ko ba mu yarda, dimbin damar samun ayyukan yi ga mutane a kasar waje za ta ta kasance da wahala saboda wasu al'amura da za su bijiro nan da 'yan shekaru kadan."

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: Getty Images).
Image caption Ma'aikatan da ke tasowa nan gaba ba za su damu da tafiya a jirgin sama don zuwa inda za su samu ci gaba a sana'arsu (ayyukansu)

Irin wadannan tsare-tsare sun yi karo da manufofin dimbin ma'aikata masu tasowa.

Cibiyar HSBC da ke nazarin ma'aikata 'yan kasashen waje ta gano cewa matasa masu jini a jika (wadanda aka Haifa karshen shekarun 1970) ke zuwa kasashen duniya don tunkarar sabon kalubalen aiki.

Wasu kan fake da damar shirin koyon aiki ko guraben aiki na duniya da aka baje su don share fage.

Alal misali a cibiyar hada-hadar horar da ma'aikata ta Landan ta bijiro da guraben ayyuka, wadanda ba a babu biyan albashi sai dai samun gogewa da kwarewa har 6,500 ga matasa a kasar China tun cikin shekarar 2008.

Daga cikin 'yan kasashe 150, wadanda suka shiga shirin kashi 40 cikin 100 na masu koyon aikin sun fitto ne daga Amurka, sai kashi 35 cikin 100 daga Birtaniya.

Da ban je Shanghai ba, babu yadda za a yi in samu aikin da nike yi a halin yanzu.

"Lamari ne da shafi huldar al'ada da samun kwarin gwiwa ta yarda kwarewar aiki kan bijiro," a cewar abokin hadin gwiwar kafa cibiyar CRCC Edward Holroyd Pearce.

"Akwai dimbin ilimin da ke da alaka da masana'antu a kasar China wanda za a iya koyo."

Kamar yadda Mclvor ya yi hankoron zama a Taiwan, tabbas babu nadama kan zaman wucin gadi da ya yi a Shanghai.

Ya gamsu da cewa kaurar da ya yi zuwa wani birni shi ne kawai abin da ci gaba da kwarewar aikinsa ke bukata.

"Da ban je Shanghai ba babu yadda za a yi in samu aikin da nike yi a yanzu," a cewar Mclvor. "Shanghai ta bunkasa nagartar bayanan ayyukan da na yi a rayuwa matukar gaske."