Turawan Ingila sun fi kowa rashin iya isar da sako

Farfesa Jennifer Jenkins Hakkin mallakar hoto University of Southampton
Image caption "Asalin masu magana da Ingilishi sun fi sanin harshe guda, kuma ba za su iya sauyawa wajen amfani da wani harshe daban," in ji Farfesa Jennifer Jenkins

A karshen shekara, hedkwatar BBC za ta dawo muku da wasu daga cikin labaran da kuka fi sha'awarsu daga shekarar 2016.

Kalma guda kacal ce a sakon i-mail, amma ta haifar da dimbin asarar kudi ga babban kamfani.

Sakon da aka rubuta cikin Ingilishi, asalin mai magana da harshen ne ya rubuta zuwa ga abokin aikinsa, wanda ya kasance Ingilishi harshe ne na biyu a gareshi.

Bisa rashin tabbaci game da kalmar, wanda ya samu sakon ya samu ma'anoni biyu da suka ci karo da juna a kamus dinsa.

Ya kuma yi aiki bisa la'akari da ma'anar da ba ta dace ba.

Tsawon watanni daga bisani babban jami'in gudanarwa ya binciki dalilin da ya sa aikin da ake yi ya wargaje har ya lakume daruruwan dubban dala.

"Duk an gano asalin aukuwar al'amarin daga kalma guda," a cewar Chia Suan Chong, wani kamfanin kwararru a harkar sadarwa na Birtaniya da ke bayar da horo bisa la'akari da hadakar al'adu, wanda bai bayyana wannan kalma mai rikitarwa ba, ssboda ta fi alaka da masana'anta kuma ta yiwu a ganota.

"An kasa shawo kan lamarin saboda daukacin wadanda lamarin ya shafa alkiblar tunaninsa ta sha bamban."

Kwatsam sai Ba'Amurke ko dan Birtaniya ya shigo cikin dakin, kuma babu wanda ya fahimce su - a cewar Chia Suan Chong.

Lokacin da irin wannan rashin fahimtar ya auku, kawai sai a dora alhakin al'amarin kan masu magana da harshen na asali.

Abin mamakin shi ne su suka fi kowa rashin iya isar da sako in an kwatanta da mutane da suka koyi Ingilishi a matsayin harshen a biyu ko na uku, a cewar Chong.

Dimbin asalin masu magana da ingilishi suna farin cikin cewa Ingilishi ya zama ahrshen duniya.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption 'Asalin masu magana da Ingilishi sun fi sanin harshe guda'

Suna jin cewa basa bukatar bata lokacin koyon wani harshen," in ji Chong.

"Sai dai akai-akai idan akwai dakin taron cike da mutanen da suka fito daga kasashe daban-daban da ke magana cikin Ingilishi, kuma kowa na fahimtar kowa, kwatsam sai Ba'Amurke ko dan Birtaniya ya shigo cikin dakin kuma babu wanda ya fahimce su."

"Asalin masu magana da Ingilishi sun fi sanin harshe guda, kuma ba za su iya sauyawa wajen amfani da wani harshe daban," in ji Farfesa Jennifer Jenkins.

Wadanda ba asalin masu amgana da harshen ba ne, za su iya sauya harshe, inda sukan yi magana mai ma'ana a tsanake, musamman mutumin da ke magana da harshen a biyu ko na uku.

A wani yanayin masu magana da Ingilishi suna da saurin magana don saura su kwaikwaye su, suna amfani da barrkwanci da kalallame kalami da doka misalan da suka ta'allaka ga al'adarsu, a cewar Chong.

A sakon i-mail suna amfani da rikirkitattun curin haruffa (bakake) a magana kamar 'OOO- (out of office)', maimakon kawai su ce za mu fita daga ofis.

"Asali mai magana da iIngilishi… shi ne wanda ta yiwu ya fi jin ba ya bukatar janwo wasu a jika," in ji ta.

Dangantaka da masu saurarenka

Inda aka samu dimbin wwadanda ba asalin Turawan Ingilishi ba ne a daukacin fadin duniya, masu magana da Ingilishi na bukatar kara kaimi

A ko da yaushe asalin masu Magana da ingilishi kan kane wurin taruka da kashi 90 cikin 100 na lokuta a cewar Michael Blatter

Asalion masu magana da harshen na samun matsala a inda ake amfani da shi a matsayin harshen mu'amalar harkokin kasa," inda Ingilishi ya kasance jigo mu'amala, a cewar Jennifer Jenkins, Farfesan harsunan Ingilishi a duniya a Jami'ar Birtaniya ta Southampton. ""Wadanda harshensu na asali Ingilishi ne su ke samun matsala wajen fahimta da za su sanya a fahimce su."

Wadanda ba asalin harshensu Ingilishi ba ne a mafi yawan lokuta ba su cika amfani da manyan kalmomi ba, sun ma fi yin amfani da saukakan kalamai, ba tare da kawata harshee ko kalallame kalamai ba.

Saboda haka, suna fahimtar juna kai ytsaye. Jenkins ta gano cewa, alal misali daliban kasashen waje da ke karatu a jami'ar Birtaniya sun fahimci juna da kyau a cikin harshen Ingilishi, ta yadda cikin sauri za su iya taimako wanda bai kware ba a rukuninsu.

'Wai me ake nufi ETA?'

Michael Blattner wanda ke Zurrich, asalin harshensa Jamusancin Switzerland, amma a amtsayinsa na kwararre yana hulda da mutane ne cikin harshen Ingilishi.

"Na sha ji daga abokan aikina wadanda ba asalin harshensu ke nan cewa sun fi fahimta ta da kyau in suna saurarena fiye da asalin masu harshen," a cewar shugaban sashen bayar da horo da tsare-tsare na runkunin kamfanin inshorar IP Operation da ke birnin Zurich.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: Jean-Paul Nerriere).
Image caption Jean-Paul Nerriere ya bullo da harshen Ingilishi duniya da ya yi wa lakabi da Globish

Jean-Paul Nerriere ya bullo da harshen Ingilishi duniya da ya yi wa lakabi da Globish, wani salon Ingilishi da ke takaita isar da sakonni da kalmomi 1,500, masu sauki amma da managarcin nahawu (ka'idar sarrafa harshe) a matsayin makami.

Daya daga cikin abin damuwa shi ne cura daidaikun haruffa

"Karon farko da na fara aiki a kasasheen duniya na ji wani ya furta 'Eta 1653' sai na yi tunani 'wai mene ne ma ETA?" inji Blattner.

"Karin rudanin ma shi ne wasu daga jerin curarrran haruffa a Ingilishin Birtaniya sun sha bamban da Ingilishin Amurka."

Sannan akwai salon al'ada, a cewar Blattner. Yayin da dan Birrtaniya ke mayar da martini kan tsarin da aka bijiro masa da cewa, "Abin na da ban sha'awa" wani takwaransa dan Birtnaiya zai iya dauka abin da rashin kima don aganinsa, "Wannan shirme ne."

Sai dai mutanen da suka fito daga kasashe daban-daban za su iya iya daukar kalmar "interesting - kayatarwa ko ban sha'awa" da kimar daraja, a cewarsa.

Kalmomin da aka saba da su, furta su cikin saurin magana bai cika yin wani tasiri ba, don a cewarsa, musamman idan kullin sadarwar alakar tarho ko bidiyo ba shi da kyau. "Sai ka fara kaucewa kana yin wani abu daban, saboda babu wata damar samun fahimta," in ji shi.

A wajen taruka, ya kara da cewa, "mafi yawan asalin Turawan Ingilishi sukan kankane batutuwan wurin da kashi 90 cikin 100 na tsawon lokacin. Amma fa sauran mutanen da aka gayyato an gayyato su ne bisa wani dalili.

Masu magana da harshen Ingilishi kadai a mafi yawan lokuta ba su da wayewar yadda za su yi magana game da duniya dungurungum - a cewar Dele Coulter.

Dale Coulter, shugaban sashen koyar da Ingilishi a cibiyar TLC international House da ke Biden a kasar Switzerland, ya yarda cewa: "Masu magana da harshen Ingilishi kadai a mafi yawan lokuta ba su da wayewar yadda za su yi magana game da duniya dungurungum.

A Berlin, Coulter ya ga ma'aikaci Bajamushe da ke aiki a Kamfanin Fortune 500 ana yi masa bayani ta shafin sadarwar bidiyo a intanet daga Hedkwatar kamfaninj da ke California.

Duk da gogewarsa a Magana da Ingilishi, Bajamushen ya tattara bayanai ne kan muhimmin al'amarin da jagoransa wajen aiwatar da ayyuka xan Amurka ya furta.

Don haka a tsakaninsu suka fito da wani tsari da suka amince da shi, wanda ta yiwu ko yaki yiwuwa kan abin da ma'aikacin kamfanin da ke California ke nufi.

"Ana rikirkitar da ma'anonin dimbin bayanai," in ji Coulter.

Saukakawa ce mafi kyawun lamari

Asalin mai magana da harshen a tattare da hadarin yin asarar cimma matsayar yarjejeniyar kasuwanci, kamar yadda wani Bafaranshe, Jean-Paul Nerriere, wanda tsohon babban Jami'in kasuwanci na duniya ne a kamfanin Kwamfuta na IBM ya yi gargadi.

"Dimbin wadanda ba sa magana da Ingilishi, musammman 'yan nahiyar Asiya da Faransawa, suna da matukar damuwar "asarar fahimtar abin da ake tattaunawa a kai' - sai su rika gyada kai da ke nunin amincewarsu, alhali ba su fahimci sakon ba dungurungum," in ji shi.

Don haka ne Nerriere ya bullo da tsarin tatattacen Ingilishin duniya da ya yi wa lakabi da 'Globish' inda ya takaita yawan kalmomin da ake amfani da su zuwa 1,500 cikin sauki, amma bisa managarcin tsarin sarrafa harshe (nahawu).

"Ba maganar harshe ba ne, makamin aiki ne," in ji shi. Tun sa'adda aka kaddamar da tsarin sarrafa Ingilishin duniya na 'Globish' a shekarar 2004 ya sayar da litattafai fiye da 200,000 (da aka fassara) cikin harsuna 18.

"Idan za ka iya isar da sako da kyau a takaice cikin sauki ka tattala lokacinka, ka kauce wa gurguwar fasssara, kuma ba za ka samu kurakurai a harkar sadarwa ba," in ji Nerriere.

Akwai bukatar ka takaita, da bayyanawa karar da bayani kaitsaye, sannnan akwai bukatar yin al'amura cikin sauki - a cewar Rob Steggles.

A matsayinsa na Baturen Ingilishi wanda ya yi aiki tukurru wwajen koyon Faransanci, Rob Steggles Babban daraktan Kasuwanci na Turai a hamshakin kamfanin sadarwana NTT, ya shawarci Turawan Ingilishi.

Kasancewar yana zaune a birnin Paris, Steggles ya ce, "akwai bukatar takaitawa da bayani karara, kuma kai tsaye, don haka akwai bukatar a saukaka al'amura. Amma akwai kyakkyawar iyaka tsakanin yin hakan da samun karbuwa.

"Gudanarwar na da matukar wahala," a cewarsa.

Bai wa saura dama

A lokacin da ake kokarin isar da sako a harshen Ingilishi tare da rukunin mutane wadanda kwarrewarsu ta bambanta, yana da muhimmanci a yi kyakkyawar hulda da saukaka al'amura, tare da baje kunnuwanka wajen sauraren mabambantan salon amfani da harshen Ingilishi, a cewar Jenkins.

Mutanen da suka koyi wasu harsunan suna iya yin hakan da kyau, amma asalin masu magana da harshen Ingilishi akasarinsu da ahrshe guda sukee amgana, kuma ba za su iya sauyawa su yi magana da wani ahrshe na daban ba.," in ji ta.

A taruka, masu magana da harshen Ingilishi suna da hanzari da kazar-kazar kana bin da suka duaka daidai ne, sannan su yi hanzarin cike gibi a wajen tatttaunawa, a cewar Steggles.

"Ta yiwu wadanda ba asalin masu magana da harshen ba su yi kokarin kirkira jimla," in ji shi.

"Sai ka jira bugun zuciya daon ba su dama. Ko kuma bayan ttaron su zo su ce, "daukacin al'amuran da aka tattauna me suke nufi?

Ko su tafi kawai, sannan babu abin da zai faru saboda ba su fahimta ba."

Ya bayar da shawarar a rika gudanar da al'amura iri guda a hanyoyi mabambanta, ta yadda za a samu fahimta da daukar mataki da martani.

"Idan babu wadanda ake harka da su,' Steggle ya yi gargadin cewa, "ba za ka san cewa an fahimceka ko ba fahimce ka ba."

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