Takalma 10 da suka sauya duniya

An fara wallafa wannan labari ranar 15 ga watan Oktoba 2015. An sake sabunta shi.

Hakkin mallakar hoto V AND A
Image caption Takalmin gwal wanda aka yi tun kusan shekara 30 kafin zuwan annabi Isa (AS)

Ba yanzu ba tun a zamanin da, takalma abubuwa ne masu muhimmanci na nuna matsayin mutum a cikin al'umma, kamar yadda wannan takalmin na zamanin Rumawa a Masar yake tuna mana. Alastair Sooke ta yi nazari.

Wannan takalmi ne da aka kawata shi da kusan zinare zalla, amma kuma bai yi kama da wanda zai dace da kusan yawancin kafar mutane ba saboda kankantarsa.

Saboda haka za a iya cewa wannan dai takalmi ne na farkon kirkirar takalma da suka karkatar da kafarmu bisa wani dalili.

Bayan jin dadi takalman kawa masu tsada na iya jawo wa masu su dan-karen ciwo.

Hakkin mallakar hoto V AND A
Image caption An yi yayin wannan takalmi na gwal da ake kira Mojari daga shekara 1790 zuwa1820

Shi kuwa wannan takalmin mazan mai tsada da ake kira mojari, wanda bisa ga dukkan alamu an yi shi ne a Hyderabad da ke Indiya, ya sa ba a ganin takalmin na farko na Masar da wani kyau ko tsada.

Gaba dayan fatar samansa an lillibeta ne da adon zinare, yayin da can wajen yatsu kuwa shi ma aka yi masa adon zinare da da wasu duwatsu masu daraja da suka hada da daimon.

Inganci da matsayin takalmin ya kai a ce watakila na babban basaraken birnin Hyderabad ne. Ko da yake ga alama ba a taba sanya shi ba. Amma kuma duk wanda ya sa aka yi shi yana son kafarsa ta bayar da bayani, ba tantama ba tababa game da dimbin dukiyarsa da kuma mulki.

Hakkin mallakar hoto V AND A
Image caption An yi shi a shekarar 1948

Baya ga alama ta mulki, takalmi wani abu ne na nuna kirkira, domin kamar yadda aka sani a tarihi takalma sun taka muhimmiyar rawa a labarai na tatsuniyoyi na zamanin da.

Misali lokacin da takalmin gilas ya yi wa kafar matar da a yammacin duniya ake kira Cinderella daidai daga nan sai matsayinta ya tashi daga barar gida zuwa gimbiya.

Akwai kuma irin wannan labarin na Cinderella na wata ruwayar da ya shafi wani basarake na Masar da wata baiwa 'yar Girka a kan gwada wani takalmi, labarin da za a iya dangantawa da zamanin karni na farko kafin zuwan Annabi Isa (amincin Allah ya tabbata a gare shi).

Wannan jan takalmin da aka yi shi da siliki da fata, an yi wa Moira Shearer ne a lokacin da za a yi fim din 'The Red Shoes' (jan Takalmi) na Micheal Powell da Emeric Pressburger a 1948. Wanda labari ne da ya shafi tatsuniyar Hans Christian Andersen.

Hakkin mallakar hoto V AND A
Image caption Takalmin da ake kira Poulaine ya yi zamani tsakanin shekara 1375 zuwa 1400

Masu harkar kayan ado na Turai kafin faduwar daular Rumawa (476ce), ba su damu da takalma masu tudu ko duguwar dunduniya ba.

A lokacin suna yayin 'yan siraran takalma ne dogaye masu tsini, kamar wannan da aka yi da fata. Tun da a lokacin fadawan sarakuna su aka fi ganin za su sanya takalman da ba na asali ba ( na kwaikwayo) wadanda ba na fata ba, na kyallaye, watakila na wani ne da ya rayu a wancan zamanin.

A karshe-karshen karni na 14 ne aka yi yayin irin wannan takalmin a Turai, a lokacin da ake kiransa da suna iri daban-daban na Ingilishi da suka hada da ''crackows'' da ''poulaines''

Domin tsinin ka da ya lankwashe ana cusa masa wasu ganyayyaki ne a ciki sannan a lankwasa shi sama domin a ji dadin tafiya.

Duk da haka wannan takalmi ba shi da dadin tafiya domin watakila masu amfani da shi a wancan zamani sun sha korafi a kan yadda babban dan yatsansu na kafa ke matsewa da kuma nawin takalmin a wurin yatsu.

Hakkin mallakar hoto V AND A
Image caption Takalman wanka a karni na 19

A farkon karni na 16 maza da mata da suke zuwa bandaki ko hammam kamar yadda ake kiransa, a zamanin Daular Ottoman sukan sanya takalman wanka ko ''qabaqib'' da Larabci.

Zuwa bandaki abu ne na rayuwar yau da kullum, wanda kuma a wannan lokacin takalman wanka suna da wani aiki na daban.

A lokacin ana yin su ne yadda mai wankan zai yi nesa da daben bandakin ko kasa wanda wuri ne mai datti da zafi da kuma santsi.

Tafiya ta yi tafiya zamani sai ya zo aka mayar da wannan amfani na takalmin wanka ya zama ado, kamar yadda za a iya gani a wannan takalmin ko qabaqib na katako mai tsawo sosai wanda aka yi amfani da shi a karni na 19 a Masar.

Takalmin da aka yi masa ado da wuri da karafuna tsawonsa santimita 28 ne da rabi ko inci 11 da digo 22, abin da ya sa ya zama takalmin da ya fi kowa ne takalmi tsawo a wurin baje koli na kayan tarihi na kawa da zayyana na duniya, na V&A.

Takalmi: Abin jin dadi da kuma ciwo. Ba shakka wannan takalmi ya tabbatar attajirar da ta mallake shi ta fi sauran takwarorinta masu wanka tsawo.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Hakkin mallakar hotoV AND A
Image caption Takalmin mata mai tsawo a shekarar 1993

Yayin da takalman wanka na zamanin Daular Ottoman ke nuna cewa amfani da takalmi a kara tsawo ba wani sabon abu ba ne, wani takalmi mai tsawo sosai ya yi kaurin suna fiye da kowa ne dogon takalmi.

Wannan takalmi shi ne na shudiyar fata da siliki wanda mai zayyanar kayan kawa ta Burtaniya Vivienne Westwood ta yi wanda ake kira ''moc-corc'' wanda dunduniyarsa ke da tsawon santimita 21.

A shekarar 1993 ne matar nan mai tallata kayan kawa na zamani Naomi Campbell ta dandana kudarta a lokacin da ta sanya shi a wurin makon bikin tallata kayayyaki na Paris, inda ta fadi lokacin da take bakin gasar tafiyar nan ta nuna kyau da iyawa.

Abin da ya faru a lokacin abu ne da ya zama na tarihin a irin wannan biki, wanda kuma ya nuna a fili irin matakin da wasu mata sukan iya dauka domin nuna kansu cewa sun isa a fagen kawa.

Hakkin mallakar hoto V AND A
Image caption Takalmin maza (Brogued Oxfords) a shekarar 1989

Kamar yadda duk wani mai sha'awar kallon fim din nan na Amurka na ban dariya Sex and The City ya sani takalmin da kwararrun kamfanonin kayan kawa irinsu Manolo Blahnik suka yi zai iya zama mai tsadar gaske.

Haka shi ma takalmin maza da aka yi da hannu, ko da silifa ne na kamfanin Oxfords zai iya kaiwa sama da fam 3,000.

Wannan takalmin kamfanin Burtaniya ne na New & Lingwood ya yi shi da fatar maraki ta Rasha wadda aka samo daga wani jirgin ruwa na kasar Denmark wanda ya nutse a mishigin gabar teku ta Cornwall na Plymouth Sound da ke Ingila a shekarar 1786.

Yin takalmin kawa kamar wannan abu ne mai wahalar gaske wanda ya kunshi bin matakai na kwararru fiye da 200.

Hakkin mallakar hoto V AND A
Image caption Takalmi sau ciki na mata mai gashi zuwa idan kafa, wanda aka yi a 1943

Wani lokacin ba wani abu ba ne mai wahala ka iya yin adon da kake so da 'yan abubuwan da kake da su, ba sai ka takura kanka kan abin da ba ka da shi ba.

Wannan takalmin da kake gani kafa ciki da ke kaiwa har idan sawu wata mace ce mai arziki a birnin Landan ta sa aka yi mata shi a lokacin yakin duniya na biyu.

Matar ta kai wa wani mai yin takalma ne a unguwar Kensington rigunanta guda biyu, daya ta leda ja daya kuma ta gashin damusa ta ce ya yi mata takalmi da su.

A lokacin da ya yi takalmin ya fita daban da saura a wannan yanayi na tattali.

''Sun dan haska sosai, kuma sun dan yi tsawo,'' inji Helen Persson mai shirya bikin nunin takalman tarihi, bikin da aka yi wa lakabi da ''Pleasure and Pain'' da harshen Ingilishi, wato Dadi da Ciwo.

''Amma ina ganin wannan labari ne mai ban mamaki, a ce a lokacin da ake tsakar yaki mutane suna son mallakar abu mai kyau kuma sabo, wanda a kan hakan ta sadaukar da tufafinta masu tsada.

Idan da akwai wani takalmi da zan iya dauka a wurin wannan bikin nunin takalma na tarihi, to da wannan ne kar ka dada kar kuma ka rage.''

Hakkin mallakar hoto V AND A
Image caption Takalmin mata da ake kira Geta wanda aka yi yayi daga 1880 zuwa 1900

Takalmi muhimmin makami ne a rumbun makaman jan hankali da kwarkwasa da sha'awa.

A misali, karuwar nan ta hoton zanen da Édouard Manet ya yi, mai suna Olympia a 1863, tsirara take, ba komai a jikinta sai dan wani zirin silikin kyalle a wuyanta da kuma takalmi mai dan karen tsawo a kafarta daya, dayan ta wancakalar da shi can gefe.

A zamanin mulkin mulaka'un attajirai a Japan, manyan karuwai masu matsayi da ake kira ''oiran suna sanya takalma na gargajiya da ake kira ''geta'' kamar wannan takalmin mai tsawon sama da santimita 20 (20cm) ko inci bakwai da digo tara.

Dalilin da karuwan suke sanya wannan takalmi shi ne, domin zai sa su dole su rika tafiya a hankali suna kuma murguda duwawu, ta yadda maza za su iya tantance kyawunsu a saukake.

Hakkin mallakar hoto V AND A
Image caption Takalmin Imelda Marcos, wanda Beltrami ya yi. Ta yi amfani da shi daga 1987 zuwa 1992

Babu wani bikin baje kolin takalma da za a yi ba tare da an ambato Imelda Marcos, matar marigayi Shugaban kasar Philippine Ferdinand Marcos ba, matar da ta yi suna da masifar son sayayya a kanti musamman ta takalma.

Imelda Marcos wadda aka haifa a 1929, an ce a tsawon rayuwarta ta tara takalma kusan kafa 3,000, da suka hada da wannan da kake gani, wanda aka yi masa adon surfani baki da kuma duwatsu masu tsada, wanda dan Italiyan nan mai zayyana kayan ado Beltrami ya yi.

Imeldan ce da kanta ta zana sa-hannunta a shimfidar takalmin duka biyu, wanda yanzu na dakin adana takalman tarihi ne na Bata da ke Toronto.

A yau Imelda Marcos alama ce da ke nuna irin yadda takalmi ke shiga ran mutane da dama.

Mutanen da suka hada da masu tara takalman ba domin su sa su ba, sai dai kawai don su rika kallonsu suna sha'awa.

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