Yadda aman wutar dutse ya binne wurare masu kayatarwa

Daga Robin Wylie

28 ga Afirilun 2016

Farkon sa'o'in ranar 20 ga watan yunin 1886, tsaunin Tarawera, wani tsauni mai aman wuta da ke tsibirin Arewacin New zeland ya yi rugugin amai mai karfi.

Ta yiwu a ji karar fashewar ruguggin aman wutar har zuwa nisan Cjhristchurch, fiye da mil 400 (640 kilomita) a Kudu maso Yamma.

Aman wutar ya halaka mutane 120, wadanda mafi yawansu 'yan asalin Maoris a New Zealand da ke zaune a kananan kyauka da ke kewaye da wurin.

Amma ba wai saboda yawan mace-macen ake tunawa da rugugin aman wutar tsaunin Terawerta a New Zealand ba.

Mafi yawan mutane suna tunawa da aman wutar ne saboda batar musu da tsibiri mai kayatarwar ban mamaki; launin ruwan goro da farin labi-labi da ke kai wa ga tafkin Rotomahana.

Labi-labin su ne hanyoyi mafi girma da ke walwalin haske karara da aka taba gani a doron kaswa.

Suna nan daf da gabar tafkin Rotomahana mil shida (kilomita 10) ta barin Kudu maso Yammacin tsaunin Tarawera. Kuma suna da matukar ban sha'awa.

Labi-labin hanyoyin har lakabi aka rrika yi musu a matysayin al'amarin ban mamaki na takwas a jerin al'amuran ban mamakin duniya.

Daya na da launin fari mai haske kwarai, yayin dayan kuwa ba tare da la'akari da wani tsaftatattacen sinadari ba, ya yi launin rruwan goro mai kawalniya.

Kowannensu zai iya zama bin ban ta'ajibi a jerin albarkatun kasa. Amma kasancewar irin wadannan abubuwan ban mamaki daf da juna da launukan da ke surka walwalin kowanensu, har ta kai ga launukan ruwan goro da fari sun fifita a kan sauran sassan su.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: PAINTING/Alamy Stock Photo)
Image caption Labi-labin ruwan goron Charles Blomfield (1886)

Zayyanar launin fari ta karni na 19 musamman na falalen Charle Blomfield na nuni da irin kayatarwar ban sha'awarsu.

Lokacin da aka gama rugugin aman wutar tsaunin, wani lokaci da safe, sai tafkin Rotomahana ya bace.

"Lamarin na da matukar wuya ga wadanda ba 'yan aslin kasar New Zealand ba su fahimci abin labi-labin hanyoyi ke nuni da shi a garemu," a cewar Corneel de Ronde, masanin kimiyyar nazarin albarkatun kasa a cibiyar kimiyya ta GNS, wata cibiyar binciken kimiyyar tta kasar New Zealand.

Shi ya tabbatar da aukuwar lamarin da sanyin safiyar watan Yuni har ta kai ga ya yi kaurrin suna.

Jim kadan bayan karfe uku na dare, kimanin sa'a guda bayabn tsaunin Tarawera ya yi kara, sai aman wutar tsaunin ta mlala cikin tafkin Roto,mahana ta bulluko da ramuka-ramuka a kafar dandamalin shiga tafkin.

A shekarar 1886 tafkin Rotomahana ba a ganinsa dga kauyukan da ke kewayensa, ma'ana mafi yawan mazaunan yankin sun dai ji karar fashewar rugugin aman wutar ne kawai.

Amma wani mutum ya yi wsa'ar ganin abin da ya faru, lokacin da ya yi dare a kauyen da ke yankin kimanin mil bakwai (kilomita 11) tya bangaren gabas ya dan kyallaro yadda tafkin Rotomahana .

Launin labi-labin ruwan goro da fari an yi fata-fata da su, ko a ce an binne su sun bace.

Kwana biyu da aukuwar lamarin, mutumin mai suna Henrry Burrt ya bayyana wa 'yan jarida cewa lokacin da da aka yi aman wutar si tafkin ya zama kamar "katuwar tukunyar karfe da kulalaen tafka ke kai-kawo a kowane bari."

Daidai lokacin da rugugin aman wutar ya tsagaita, wajen safiya, tafkin Rotomahana ya bace.

Ruwan cikinsa ya watsu cikin iska, inda ya gauraya da tokar aman wutar ya yi tulluwar sululun tabo da ya baibaye kewayen karkarar da kimanin kafa 46 (wato mita 14) a zurfin kasa.

Sababbin ramukan da suka bulluko na aman wutar sun tarwatsa dandamalin gefen tafkin Rotomahana, inda suka yi ta aman tabo da duwatsu kwanaki biyu bayan aukuwar lamarin, daidai lokacin da tawagar masu bincike ta isa wajen don yin nazari.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: age fotostock/Alamy Stock Photo)
Image caption Bullukowar ramin tsaunin Tarawera

Ba wai kawai tafkin bacewa ya yi ba, har ma da labi-labin hanyoyi masu launuka ruwan goro da fari. Ba a san inda suka yi ba; sashen da suke a da duk ya zama curin tabo.

Curin farin ma'aadani da muttane suka gano ya cakude da burbushin aman wutar tsaunin ba shi da kyawun gani.

Abin takaicin da far wa tafkin Rotomahana da kewayensa bayan aman wutar shekarar 1886 ya jefa wa 'yan kasar New Zealand tabbacin tunanin labi-labin hanyoyi launin ruwan goro da fari an balbalta su ku an binne su sun bace bat.

A asirce, wasu masu bincike suka yi ta kokarin shawo kan wannan rikirkitacen lamari da ya dabaibaye labi-labin.

Watannin da suka biyo bayan aman wutar, tfkin Rotomahana ya sake fitowa.

Ruwa daga kewayensa ya rika kwarara cikin ramukan da suka bulluko bayan da aman wutar ya tarwasa tafkin, a hankali, a hankali sai wani tafkin sabo ya hadu, wanda zurfinsa ya rubanya na da sau hudu, inda ya fadada girrmansa da nunki rubi biyar in an kwatanta da na da.

Zuwa karshen shekarar 1886, sashen da labi-labin launin ruwan goro da fari na hanyoyin yake ya zurma kasa da rubi goma-goma na ruwan tafkin.

Al'amarin dai na nuni da cewa tamkar sun bata bat. An shafe shekara 128 kafin duniya tasan gaskiyar lamarin makomarsu.

Tsakanin shekarun 2011 da 2014, masana kimiyya daga cibiyar binciken albarkatun kasa ta New Zealand (GNS) sun jagoranci dimbin ayyukan bibiyar bin kadin binciken, inda suka shata taswirar da nazarin dandamalin tafkin Rotomahana.

Manufar binciken ba ta da alaka da launin ruwan goro da fari labi-labi kai tsaye. Manufar tawagar masu binciken ita ce su gano yadda aman wutar da ya auku a shekarar 1886 ya shafi zafin yankin da ya haifar da labi-labin

Amma a asirce wasu masu bincike suka yikokarin warware takaddamar rikirkitaccen lamarin da ya baibaye labi-labin tun daga ranar da suka bace a shekarar 1886.

A irin lkwarin gwiwarsu, wasu daga cikin masanan kimiyyar sun yunkurin fito da hakikanin abin da ya rage na wuraren.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: Guido Vermeulen-Perdaen/Alamy Stock Photo
Image caption Tafkin Rotomahana

"A zuci ina ta kai-kawon tunanin ko mene ne za mu gani a wuraren da labi-labi ke kafe a da," inji de Ronde, wanda ya jagoranci binciken tafkin.

Amma wnanan dai mafarki ne. A daidai lokacin akwai muhimmin nazarin kimiyya da za a aiwatar.

Tawagar masu binciken sun smau nasarar fito da sifffar dandamalin tafkin Rotomahana ta asali.

Daya daga cikin manufofin da masu binciken ke hankoron cimmawa lokacin da suke tafkin Rotomahana, ita ce su fitar zayyana karara yadda dandamalin tafkin yake a da, aikin da de Ronde ya dauki dawainiyar aiwatar da shi tare da abokan aikinsa daga New Zeland da Amurka.

Sun samu kwarin gwiwar cewa t ahanayar taswirar dandamalin tafkin cikakka, za su iya gano makomar tsarin zafin doron kasar tafkin.

Rukunin masu binciken sun gano sifffofin, ta hanyar amfani da na'urorri, masu zuko managarcin hoto.

Sai suka Makala hotunan a jikin na'ura mai keta karkashin kasan ruwa (AUVs), inda suka rika juya akalarta a cikin tafkin, ta rika tafiya da nisan kafa 31 (kilomita 10), tana daukar taswirar dandamalin tafkin a duk sa'adda suka shigga.

Masu binciken sun yi nazarin zuko hotunan karkashin ruwa a Fabrairun 2011.

Don su samu karade kimanin sukwara mil 3.5 (kilomita sukwa 9) na dandamalin tafkin, masu binciken sun karkata akalar na'urar keta karkashin ruwa ta AUVs a jere a jere tana kutsawa a mike, inda a kowace shiga takan dauko dogon hoto, amma a tsuke na dandamalin tafkin, kusan dai tamkar ana dates furannin kallo.

Ta hanyar kwatanta wadannan hotunan, wadanda suka zuko a nisan mil 186 (kilomita 300), masu binciken sun samu managarciyar siffar hoton dandamalin tafkin Rotomahana na asali.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: de Ronde et al).
Image caption Fasalin nazarin da masu binciken tafkin Rotomahana suka yi

Hotunan da na'urar sonar ta dauko ba abin da idanunku za su gani a can kasa ba ne (domin sai a ce dundumi da falalen shimfidadden dutse, bai yi nisa da wurin ba).

Sabanin haka ma hotunan ssun kasance baki da fari, wurare masu duhu na nuni da falalen dutsen da ke shimfide, yayin da mai hasken ke nuna tundurrkin dutse ko iskar gas.

Hoton dandamalin tafkin da ya fito a na'urar daukar hoto ta sonar baibaye yake da shimfidadden falale, tamkar yadda rukunin masu binciken suka zata.

Amma akwai dimbin siffofi masu ban mamaki da suka fito a hoton na'urar sonar.

Masu binciken suka abin da ya bayyana na da tsawo, ssiririn dutse da ya bulluko.

Wasu sun yi nuni da tsagun farfashewa rugugin kasa da suka keta sassan dandamalin tafkin. De Ronde na ganin wadannan al'amura ta yiwu sun auku ne lokacin aman wutar shekarar 1886.

Can a wani wurin kuwa, da na'urar sona ta shata taswirar dandamalin tafkin, masu bincikeen sun ga dundumin fatalwar kulalen hadari da ke fitowa daga kananan ramukan da suka bulluko a kan dandamalin tafkin, al'amarin da ke tabbatar da cewa har yanzu rugugin iskar aman wutar tsaunin na kai-kawo daga dandamalin tafkin Rotomahana zuwa yau.

De Ron ya saba ganin irin wadannan siffofin a na'urar daukar hoton karkashin ruwa ta sonar. Ya taba kwata irin wadannan nazarin bincike don bin Kadin al'amuran aman wutar dutse da dandamalin teku.

Amma a daya na'urar sonar siffofin da aka dauko daga Arewa maso yammma lokon tafkin Rotomahana, de Ronde da tawagarsa sun ga wani wania bin da ba su taba gani ba a hoton sonar ko daukacin kowane irin siffar hoton da aka dauko.

Da suke rubuta abin d akee saman dandamalin tafkin, masu binciken sun ga wani dogon siririn dutse da ya bulluko, inda a kwance tsawonsa ya kai kafa 197 (mita 60).

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: de Ronde et al)
Image caption Hoton na'urar sonar na burburbushin labi-labin

Masana kimiyya ba su fahimci abin da suka gano ba. Siffar ta bayyana karara ba wata matsala:matsalolin an shat amusu layin in gindaya iyaka, inda wania bin mamaki ya bulluko., ya yi curi-curi.

Amma wurin da aka gano wannan siffa mai ban mamaki shi ne hakikanin abin da ya dauki hankalin masu bincikeen.

Suna ganin suna wajen da dandamalin tafkin yake mai launin ruwan goro, inda labi-labin yake a da.

Da an yi musu kyakkyawan duba sai a ga kamar suna da matsanancin launin ruwan goro.

Masu binciken sun san cewa curin abin ya bulluko da suka gano babu yiwuwar a ce daukacinsa labi-labi ne mai launin ruwan goro, kawai wani balgace nasu.

Amma ta yiwu balgacen ne ko? Wannan hasashen kadai ya isa ya sanya wa masana kimiyyar bugun zuciya.

Masu binciken sun so daukar hoton kai-tsaye. Na'urar sonar wata aba ce, amma tantance cewa siffar it ace wani sashe na labi-labi launin ruwan goro suna bukatar hangarsa kai-tsaye.

Dole suka yi jiran shekaru uku. Lokacin da masu binciken suka gano burbushin labi-labin a shekarar 2011, sun yanke cewa sun kawo karshen bincikensu wajen tura na'urar daukar hoto karkashin ruwa.

Sai dai lokacin suka dawo kan tafkin Rotomahana a wani zagaye na binciken cikin Fabrairun 2014, sun girke karamin jirgin ruwa a daidai wajen da suke da tabbacin burbushin labi-labin, sia suka jefa na'urar daukar hoto.

Mafi yawan hotunan da suka dauko sun nuna shimfidadden falalen dutse, kuma babu wani abu da yawa sabanin hakan. Amma don samun tabbaci sai suka dauki dubbai.

Sannan a kan biyu daga cikin wadannan hotunan, de Ronde da abokan aikinsa suka samu tabbacin cewa ba falalen dutse ba ne. Lamarin ya sanya su murmushi.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: de Ronde et al)
Image caption Hoton bangaren balgacen labi-labin hanyoyi masu launin ruwan goro

Hotunan sun nuna zagayyen dunkulen dutse da ya bulluko, ya yi sululun hawa da gangara a wani barin.

Kuma bangarorrin da ba su da ado baibaiye da su a shimfidar falalen dute suna da haske, da haske-haske ya bayyana. Kyakkyawan kallo ya sa an dan ga wulkitawar launin ruwan goro.

Hujjar da hoto ya tabbatar da ita, tatttare da wurrin da aka samu duwatsu a dandamalin tafkin, sun isa su tabbatar da lamarin: de Ronde da abokan aikinsa na kallon sashen da labi-labin hanyoytti masu launin ruwan goro suke.

Kwatsaan sai suka bankado yanayi mai kayatarwar ban mamaki.

Amma har yanzu ba a samu mafi ingancin abin da ake nema ba.

Jin kwarin gwiwar sun bankado labi-labi mai launin ruwan goro, massu binciken sai suka jefa na'urar daukar hoton halittun ruwa da nisan mil 0.6 (kilomita 1) a barin Arewa maso Gabas a hakikanin wurin, tun kafin aukuwar lamarin shekarr 1886, inda labi-labin hanyoyi masu launin fari suke.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: de Ronde et al)
Image caption Wurin da ake da tabbacin labi-labin hanyoyi masu launin fari

Lamarin ban mamaki shi ne hotunan sun nuna daukacin al'amura iri guda. A wani wurin da frin labi-labin yake kafin aman wutar 1886, na'urar daukar hoton ta nuna curin hasken dutse.

Idan har akwai wania bu, to curin da ya bulluko na biyu ya fi kama labi-labin fiye da na farko.

Dutse mai tsanan farin haske irinsa ne a tsaye da curi-curin ramuka a jere- a jere al'amarin da ke nuni da yanayin zamanin gabanin aman wutar tsaunin da hotunan farin labi-labin hanyoyin.

De Ronde ya kwatanta wannan launin da na kyandir.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: de Ronde et al)
Image caption Daf da daf yana nuni da nisan mita guda na labi-labin

Tawagar masu bbinciken sun gano wani abun, har t akai ga tafkin Rotomahana kwatsam ya da balgatattun amshahuran labi-labinsa.

An yanke su, sun nutse an binne su tsawon karni shimfide da falale, amma kawai sun fara bayyana duk da cewa aman wutar shekarar 1886 ya tarwatsa su.

Hotuna da siffofin da na'urar sonara ta bankado sun nuna burbushin labi-labin da aka wallafa su a Mujallar nazarin kimiyyar aman wutar dutse da zafin karkashin kasa (Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research).

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: Oldtime/Alamy Stock Photo)
Image caption Zayyanar fari da baki na alamun labi-labin hanyoyin

Tabbas su ne balgatattun labi-labinkuma kasha 10 cikin 100 na labi-labin masu launin ruwan goro suka tsira, har ma sun yi kasa da yawan fararen labi-labin, amma a gaskiya saura kadan a karawannan bayani a jerin abubuwwan mamakin da masu bincikeen suka gano.

A bayyanin kwararrun masana, labi-labin wasu al'amura ne da masu binciken ba su ba su muhimmanci ba, sai akwai kawarsu ta ja hankalinsu, amam ba sa cikin jigon binciken kimiyyar.

Sai dai a iya cewa labi-labi na nuni da muhimmin al'amari ga masana kimiyyar da daukacin 'yan kasar New Zealand. Ta yiwu Burt ya yi matukar mamakin jin cewa wani abu ya tsira.

"Ina jin cewa tamkar Amurkawa ne su gano hujjar falalen dutsen gabar rkogin Arizona da ya bace," a cewar de Ronde.

A karshen bincikensu cikin shekarar 2014, amswu binciken su fice daga tafkin Rotomahana a karshen al'amari.. tawagar masu binciken sun cimma manufar binciken kimiyya da suka dukufa akai; sun kafa hujja cewa yanayin rugugin zafin karkashin kasa ya haifar da niusan karkashin tafkin da dandamalinsa ya rubanya sau 400 fiye da kowane.

Kuma sun smau nasarar yin Karin haske game da al'amarin da ya auku ranar 10 ga Yunin 1886.

Daga wannan mahangar mil bakwai, Henry Burt mutum guda da lamarin ya faru a gabansa ta yiwu abin da ya gani kadan ne.

Yawan tokar da tuni ta fito dga tsaunin Tarawera da tabon aman wutar da ke yunkurin fitowa daga daga tafkin Rotomahana a kashin kansa, ba dadaewa ba zai kassara wannan fahimtar.

Sai dai sababbin al'amuran da aka gano sun mayar da tafkin Rotomahana ya zama hujja ta biyu kan al'amuran da ke faruwa cimkin dare.

Duk da cewa a hakikanin gaskiya balgatatttun labi-labi masu launukan ruwan gorro da fari suka rage zuwa yau, hujja ce mai karfi da ke nuni da cewa mafi yawan al'amuran ban mamaki na da aman wutar tsaunin ne ya yi rugu-rugu da su, har ta yiwu tun kafin lamarin ya faru.

Ta yiwu Burt ya cika da mamakin jin cewa wani abu ya tsira daga mummunan hadarin da ya gani.