Kun san yadda ake yin dogon suma?

Kate ta ce murmurewarta ba abu ne mai sauki ba Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Kate ta ce murmurewarta ba abu ne mai sauki ba

Kate Bainbridge, mai shekara 26, malamar makaranta ta yi doguwar suma tsawon kwana uku, inda daga bisani ta farfado da cuta mai kama da mura.

Kwakwalwarta ta yi zafi rau, ta wajen gefen laka da ke kai sako da jijiyar kwakwalwa, wadda ke lula mutum zuwa barci.

Makonni kadan bayan da cutar ta warke, Kate ta farfadso daga doguwar suma amma an gano jikinta ya langabe.

Cikin sa'a sai ;likita mai bnayar da agajin gaugawa, David Menon, shi ne babban jami'in bincike a sabuwar cibiyar Wolfson da ke nazarin hotunan kwakwalwa da aka bude a Cambridge, inda Adrian Owen ya taba aiki.

A shekarar 1997, watanni hudu bayan da aka gano jikinta ya kamu da cutar langabewar gabobi, Kate ta kasance mara lafiyar farko da gungun ma'aikatan cibiyar Cambridge za su gudanar da bincike kanta.

Sakamakon binciken an wallafa shi cikin shekarar5 1998, inda aka gano abin ban mamaki da ba a zata ba.

Baya ga cewa Kate na motsawa in an jijjiga kowane bari; aikin kwakwalwarta ya sha bamban da na masu lafiyar da suka amin ce a kashin kansu aka bi kadin lamarinsu.

Hotunan aikin kwakwalwarta sun nun a falatsowar launin ja-ja, alamun aikin bayan kwakwalwar, wanda a bri guda ake yi wa lakabi da 'fusiform gyrus' wato bangaren kwakwalwa da ke sarrafa ji da gani (fuskokin mutane da launuka da kalmomi).

Kate ce ta zama ta farko wadda aka yi aiki tukuru wajen bibiyar kadin hoton kwakwalwarta (PET), inda aka gano cewa, "jirkitaccen dundumin gani."

Tabbas ko wannan lamarin na nuni da motsi ko farfadowa ce, a lokacin, shi ne abin takaddama.

Sakamakon na da matukar muhimmanci a kimiyya, har ma ga ita Kate da iyayenta.

"Kasancewar masarrafar gani na aiki ya kawar da matsalar da ke tattare da yadda ake tarairayar majiyata masu irin wannan matsalar gaba daya, kuma dalilin ya nuna muhimmancin ci gaba da yi wa Kate magani ba kakkautawa," a cewar Menon.

Kwatsam sai Kate ta warware daga wannan matsala bayan ta shafe watanni shida ana yi mat amagani.

"Sun ce ba na jin zafin ciwo," inji ta. "sun yi matukar kuskure." A wasu lokutan takan yi kuka, amma malaman jinya sukan dauka kawai zuwa (kukan yayi daidai da halin da take ciki).

Wani lokacin sai inji ban a iya katabus an yi watsi da ni.

Ma'aikatan asibiti ba su fahimci irin wahalar da take sha a karkashin kulawarsu ba.

Kate ta firgita da aikion tarairaryar gabobin jiki: Malaman jinya ba su taba yin bayani abin da suke yi mata ba.

Ta yi matukar firgita a lokacin da suka fitar da majina daga huhunta. "Ba zan iya fada muku itin tadshin hankalin da ke tattare da al'amarin ba, musamman yadda ake zukota ta baki tsawon wata," kamar yadda ta rubuta.

A wani yanayin, zafin ciwon da rashin kwanciyar hankali na ta'azzara har ta yi yunkuri daukar ranta ta hanyar dauke numfashinta.

"Ba zan iya dode hancina ya daina shakar iska ba, don haka sai ya ci gaba da aiki. Jikina bai yi nufin rabuwa da rayuwa ba."

Kate ta ce murmurewarta ba abu ne mai sauki ba, domin ta dauki lokaci a hankali, a hankali.

Ta dauki watanni biyar kafin ta yi murmushi.

Zuwa wannan lokaci ta rasa aikinta, kuma ta daina jin kamshi da dandano, tare da sauran rashin kwarin gwiwar al'amuran sa ran kyautatuwar rayuwa nn gaba.

Yanzu ta koma wajen iyayenta.

Har yanzu Kate a nakashe take tana bukatar keken gurargu. Bayan shekara 12 da wannan cutar sai ta fara takawa tana tafiya, duk da cewa tana jin takaicin yadda aka tarairayeta lokacin da take fama da matsala, sai dai ta yi godiya ga wadanda suka taimaka mata wajen kawar da tunanin daga zuciyarta.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Yaya kwakwalwar mutumin da ya yi dogon suma take?

Ta aike wa Owen da wasika

Zuwa ga Adrian. Ina rokonka ka yi amfani da nazarin larurata don nuna wa mutane muhimmanci bin kadin daukar hotuna.

Ina son dimbin mutane su fahimce su. Ni mai matukar kaunarsu ce a yanzu.

Da ba na iya katabus da rashin kwanciyar hankali, amma hotuna sun nusar da mutane yadda na kasance. Aukuwar lamarin a kaina kamar majigi ne.

A makarantar da ke baibaye da itatuwa ta Kudancin Liege, Steven Laureys ya yi nazarin langababbun marasa lafiya a wani bincike da aka gudanar shekaru da dama.

Ya yi aiki a cibiyar bincciken tartsatsin lantarki da maganadisu (Cyclotron Research Centre) a shekarun 1990, ya yi matukar mamakin yadda tsarin bin Kadin hotunan kwakwalwa na PET suka bayyana cewa marasa lafiyar za su iya amsawa da an kira sunansu:sauti mai ma'ana na fitowa da zarar jini yana kwarara a jijiyoyin alakar kwakwalwa da kunnuwa.

Bayan haka kuma a bangaren Atlantic kuwa, Nichloas Schiff ya gano cewa a sashen da kwakwalwa ta samu rauni yana dan motsawa, inda jijiyoyin ke aiki a cukurkude. Me daukacin al'amuran ke nuni da shi?

Wane ne zai yi tennis?

A wancan lokacin, likitoci sun dauka sun fahimci matsalar: babu majiyacijn da ke cikin tsananin langabun jiki da ya san inda kansa yake. Kar ka damu da cewa ya bude ido (yana kalle-kalle) kwakwalwa ce ta haskaka, suke ta motsi: za ka iya kwata haka kan birin da aka yi masa allurar barci.

Bisa la'akari da gwaje-gwajen daka yi a baya, an gano cewa, kwakwalwar da ta rasa iskar oxygen sanadiyyyar bugun zuciya ko shanyewar gabobin jiki, wanda da wuya ya murmure idan iskar ba ta ci gaba da gudana ba, cikin watanni kadan.

Irin wadannan majiyatan suna fama da matsanancin ciwon da ake dauka ya fi mutuwa muni: kwakwalwarsu ba ta aiki. Ba su mutu ba. Likitoci, masu kyakkyawar manufa na ganin ya fi dacewa a dauki ran langababben majiyaci, ta hanyar amfani da yunwa da kishirwa. Wannan shi ne zamanin da Laureys ya yi wa lakabin da "maganin tababa."

Lamarin da Owen da laureys da Schiff suka bijiro da shi, shi ne sake mahangar tarairayar langbabben majiyaji. Kadan ne daga cikinsu ake iya sanya su jerin wadanda ke farke a dabaibaye. Kafa wannan cibiya ya yi matukar shan suka.

"Ba za ka iya has ashen irin wannan yanayi a sshekarun 1990," inji Schiff. "tashin hankalin da muka fuskanta ya sha gaban tababa." Da Laurey ya tuna baya sai ya dan yi murmushi:"Likitoci ba su son a ce sun yi kuskure."

A shekarar 2006, Owen da Laureys sun yi kokarin bullo da managarciyar dabarar isar da sako ga majiyacin da ke halin langabewa, wanda ya hada da Gillian (da aka sauya sunansa). A Yulin 2005, wata 'yar shekara 23 da ta tsallaka titi tana waya har motoci biyu suka kade shi.

Watanni biyar daga bisani Gillian ta warware daga shanyewar gabobin jiki. Tushen lamarin, wani kyakkyawan nazari ne da Owen da Laureys suka fara a shekarar 2005, inda ssuka bukaci lafiyayyun mutanen da suka amince a kashin kansu a bibiyi kadin rayuwarsa, sai aka ce su wassafa a tunaninsu cewa suna yin abubuwa dabam-dabam, kama daga waka zuwa jirkita fuskar mahaifiyarsu.

Sai Owen ya bullo da wata dabara. "Yanzu na gano mafita," inji shi. "Na umarci lafiyayye (mutum) ya halarto da yin was an kwallon tennis a tunaninsa.

Daga nan sai na umarceta da ta kudurta cewa tanan tafiya a cikin dakunan gidanta."Wasan tennis na farfado da aiki wani bangare na kwakwalwa da ake yi lakabi da cortex (kasa-kasan sashen da ke taimakawa wajen farkarwa), wandake taimakawa wajen zaburar da motsin ayyuka. Yanayin aikin biyu sun bambanta ne tamkar 'e,' da 'a'a.'

don haka idan aka umarci mutane su damfaru da tunanin wasan tennis don cewa 'e'da kai-kawo a cikin gida na farfado da tuna baya, da dorowan sashe da rabin kwakwalwa, bangaren lamba shida (nunin basira).

Za a iya amsa tambayoyi ne ta hanyar fMRI (hoton ma'aunin awon sauye-sauyen aikin kwakwalwa).

Bibiyar langabewar' kwakwalwar Gillian ta hanyar daukar hoto, ya bukaceta ta kudurta a tunani, inda al'amura iri guda suka bayyana a tsakanin lafiyayyun mutanen da suka yarda aka bi kadin al'amuransu, Lamari ne na kai-kawon tartsatsin lantarki. Owen ya yi nazarin tantance aikin kwakwalwarta.

Maganadisun kalato bayanai ko fMRI na auna abubuwan da ke gudana a kwakwalwa ta hanyar gano sauye-sauyen gudanar iskar oxygen a jini (Science Photo Library).

Lamarin Gillian, an wallafa shi a miujallar kimiyya a shekarar 2006 a matsayin babban labara a fadin duniya. Sakamaon ya bayar da mamaki, tare da jefa tababa. "In aka fadada zancen, na samu sakonnin i-mail iri biyu daga tsararrrakina," inji Owen. "K dai su ce, "lamarin na da ban mamaki - an jinjina maka!' ko 'Ta yaya kake iya tantnce cewa wannan matar ta san inda kanta yake?"

Tsohuwar karin magana ta ce, ikirarin al'amura na daban na bukatar hujja ta-daban.

Masu tababa sun mayar da martani kan cewa an yi kuskure ne a aikata hakan "kwararan hujjoji" indan akwai fassara ta kai tsaye.

Daniel Greenberg, masanin aikin kwakwalwa a Jami'a California, da ke Los Angeles, ya yi nuni da cewa, "aikin kwakwalwa da ke langabe ana bijiro da su ne ta hanyar umarni kalmar karshe, wadda a kodayaushe ke nuni da abin da aka halarto da shi a tunani."

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