Sirrin kyawun fuskar biri

Hakkin mallakar hoto constance dubuc

Birai su ne suka fi kasancewa masu launi iri daban-daban a cikin dabbobin da ke shayarwa, inda za ka ga wasu da fuskoki masu kyau, to amma sai a yanzu ne masana kimiyya suka fara fahimtar sirrin kamannin nasu.

Zoe Gough ta yi nazari a kai.

Watakila biran zamanin da sun samu halittar iya ganin launuka ne da kyau, domin su gane ganyayyaki da 'ya'yan itatuwa. Haka kuma suna da kamanni iri daban-daban masu kyau.

Charles Darwin yana da matukar sha'awa a kan launin birai, har ma ya yi rubutu a kai (The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals), da kuma a wata kasida da aka wallafa a mujallar Ingilshi ta Nature a 1876.

Tun daga nan ba a samu wasu karin rubuce-rubuce a kai ba sai a farkon wannan karnin.

Dakta James Higham na jami'ar New York a Amurka, ya ce fasahar hoto ta zamanin nan da kuma yadda ake sarrafa kwamfuta wajen fito da hotuna, sun ba wa masana kimiyya damar nazarin abubuwa daban-daban da ke fuskokin birai.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Alejandra Pascal Garrido
Image caption Girman nono da sauran sassan jikin mace da ke sa sha'awa alama ce ta budewar mahaifar matar gwaggon biri

Ayarin masanin sun gudanar da cikakken bincike a kan wasu nau'ukan birai a game da launin fuskokinsu da kuma alamun balagarsu na jiki.

Wasu mazan biran (drills) sun bambanta sosai daga matansu, inda suka linka matan uku girma sannan suna da fika babba da kuma launi mai haske da ke jan hankalin mata sosai.

A binciken da masanan suka yi sun gano cewa bambancin launin wata alama ce ta maza da ke nuna irin babban matsayin da suke da shi a cikin al'ummarsu ta wannan jinsi na biran.

''Ko da yake abin na da ban sha'awa, ta hanyoyi da dama ya yi kama da yadda abin yake a wurin wasu dabbobin masu shayarwa, wanda yake kamar sakamakon gasa ce tsakanin maza,'' in ji Dakta Higham.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Will Allen
Image caption Launin fuskar wannan birin (drill) alama ce ta matsayin namiji a cikin al'ummarsa.

Mazan dabbobi masu shayarwa suna da abubuwa daban-daban a halittar jikinsu kamar kaho da manyan babbar fika domin yin galaba a fada da wasu mazan.

Shi kuwa irin birin nan (mandrills) mai jan launi mai haske ana ganin, launin yana da alaka ne da matsayinsa a cikin jinsinsa da kuma jan hankalin mata.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Will Allen
Image caption Maza masu babban matsayi suna da launi sosai

Wanda ma kuma ya fi ba da mamaki shi ne na birin (rhesus macaques) da ke da jan launi a kewayen fuskarsa da duburarsa da kuma sauran yankin bayansa, amma kuma bai yi kama da siffar adon jan hankalin mata irin na sauran dabbobi masu shayarwa ba ko kadan.

Wannan ya yi kama ne da irin siffar tsuntsaye maza ta jan hankalin matansu maimakon ta dabbobi masu shayarwa.

Wani bincike da aka yi a Biritaniya a 2003 ya gano cewa mata (birai) sun fi son maza masu fuska jajawur, abin da ke nuna yadda launi ke da matsayi a wurinsu.

Ayarin Dakta Higham, ya cigaba da biybiyar wannan bincike, domin nuna launin fuskar birin ba abu ne da ya shafi karfi ko iko a tsakanin maza ba, illa dai abu ne da ke jan hankalin mata wajen zabar namiji.

''Kyawun da mazan biran ke nunawa domin jan hankalin mata, wanda kuma matan ke amfani da shi wajen zabar miji abu ne mai ban sha'awa matuka,'' in ji Dakta Higham.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Constance Dubuc
Image caption Jar fuskar alama ce ta haihuwar 'ya'ya, wadda kuma ke jan hankalin mata

A baya-bayan nan kuma wani ayarin masana bisa jagorancin Dakta Constance Dubuc, ya nuna cewa launin fatar da yafi turi a jikin birai yana nuna wadanda suka fi haihuwa, a jikin namiji ne ko mace, kuma wannan abu ne da ya samo asali tun daga kakanninsu.

Dakta Higham ya ce, ''nuna cewa launi abu ne na gado wanda kuma yake zaman wani ma'auni na haihuwa muhimman abubuwa ne da ke nuna cewa abu ne da ake zaba.''

''Sai dai abu ne mai wuyar gaske yin hakan, domin akwai bukatar hada daidaikun birai wadanda ke da tarin wannan kwayoyin halitta.''

Hakkin mallakar hoto Will Allen
Image caption An yi amfani da fasahar nazarin fuskar dan adam wajen nazarin fuskar birai

Ayarin Dakta Higham ya kuma yi nazari kan bambancin da ke wakana tsakanin halittu, inda masanan suka bude babi wajen amfani da fasahar nazarin fuskar mutum a kan halittun da ba mutane ba.

Masu binciken sun jarraba maganar masanin dabbobin dawan nan na Biritaniya ne Jonathan Kingdon da ke nuna cewa kamannin fuskokin birai na zamanin da sun kasance ne saboda irin bukatarsu ta gane 'yan uwa ko danginsu da kuma kauce wa saduwa da wasu daban.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Cyril Grueter
Image caption Yanzu ayarin Dakta Higham na nazari kan kamannin irin wannan birin

Masu binciken sun gano cewa kamannin biran na zamanin da sun bambanta da na danginsu da ke kusa da su, abin da ya kara tabbatar da bayanin Mista Kingdon, bayanin da ba a tabbatar ba tun shekarun 1980.

Yanzu Dakta Higham yana fatan gano wadanne kamanni ko alamomi ne takamaimai suka fi muhimmanci wajen bambanta nau'uka ko jinsuna.

Ayarin nasa na kuma hada hannu da wasu ayyukan binciken a kan wasu biran na zamanin da, da suka hada da birin da za a iya cewa mai fuskar da ta fi ban sha'awa a dukkanin birai, wani mai launin fari da baki wanda ke da budadden hanci (black and white snub-nosed monkey).

Idan kana son karanta wannan a harshen Ingilishi latsa nan fabulous monkey faces