The price of materials and fuel paid by UK manufacturers rose at an annual rate of 13.4% in January, according to the Office for National Statistics.
It means input costs rose at their fastest for more than two years and are above forecasts of a 12.6% annual rate.
Prices of goods leaving factories rose 4.8%, the highest since May, and also above forecasts for a rise of 4.4%.
Analysts said the figures underlined inflationary worries and may make an interest rate rise more likely.
The ONS said the rise in input prices was mainly due to a 28.8% annual increase in the price of crude oil. But imported raw materials such as metals was also a factor.
The data suggests that next week's consumer price inflation figure will show a rise, also driven by January's rise in VAT.
Alan Clarke, economist at BNP Paribas, said that it looked like inflation was becoming "engrained", adding: "It reinforces the case for higher rates."