In Pictures

In pictures: Gang City

Italy has long been plagued by the activities of the mafia, and a new exhibition of photographs in Venice attempts to uncover the wider effects of organised crime on suburban life.

From the drug smugglers of Naples to the prisoners of Brazil, Gang City examines the connection between violence and civil decay.

Showcasing more than 80 photographs, which date back to the mid-1980s, the exhibition portrays the perpetrators and victims of gang-related crime.

A small girl holds a pigeon whilst a gun lies next to her on the bed, Watts, Los Angeles, 1994. Image copyright Donna De Cesare
Image caption For the past 30 years, Donna de Cesare has been documenting the effects of war and gang violence on young people in Central America and refugee communities in the US. Here, a three-year-old holds a pigeon called Esperanza (Hope). Her uncle is unable to walk, following a gang attack in Watts, Los Angeles.
Initiation, San Salvador, El Salvador, 1993 Image copyright Donna De Cesare
Image caption In her project Unsettled, De Cesare examines the history of repression, violence, and trauma. This image shows young people initiating a 15-year-old into their clique of the Mara Salvatrucha gang in San Salvador, El Salvador.
A woman stands in front of a smashed mirror, holding a syringe in one of the housing blocks known as Le Vele in Scampia, Naples, 2008. Image copyright Salvatore Esposito
Image caption Documenting Scampia, a suburb in the north of Naples, Salvatore Esposito captures those embroiled in the region's drug trade. For many years, rival clans within the mafia, known as the Camorra, have battled for control of the area.
A man stands behind bars in a Brazilian jail Image copyright Marina Lorusso
Image caption Marina Lorusso travelled to Minas Gervias, in Brazil, to photograph the Association for Protection and Assistance of Convicts's alternative to state incarceration. This man stands in one of the facilities, which are run by civilian staff and volunteers, and encourage self-sufficiency as a form of rehabilitation.
The torso of a man as he counts notes out Image copyright Francecso Cito
Image caption Award-winning photographer Francecso Cito portrays a vision of Albania since the downfall of Communism in the early 1990s and the temptation of crime in a country in poverty. Here, a man holds a pile of cash in Shkoder, a city in the north-west of Albania.
A woman hugs bedding as she walks through a prison hallway Image copyright Giampiero Corelli
Image caption Giampiero Corelli has photographed female prisoners across Italy. Here, in Naples, a woman clutches her bedding as she walks through a hallway.
A graffiti artist walks along railway tracks, silhouetted against mist Image copyright Valerio Polici
Image caption In his project titled Ergo Sum, Valerio Polici chronicles the graffiti subculture in England and Argentina by following tagging groups as they carry out their evening's tasks.
East Los Angeles, 1991 Image copyright Walter Leonardi
Image caption In 1991, Walter Leonardi gained access to photograph the Geraghty Loma gang in the area of East Los Angeles known as the Mexican Alps.
Three men sit in front of a mural depicting Jesus Image copyright Walter Leonardi
Image caption The Los Angeles Police Department estimates LA has 450 gangs and a total of 45,000 members. Taken a year before the 1992 Rodney King riots that shook Los Angeles, a group sits before a mural in the east of the city.
A group of children hold pellet guns for the photographer Image copyright Letizia Battaglia
Image caption Letizia Battaglia has taken some of the best-known photographs of the surge of Mafia violence in Sicily between the 1970s and 1990s. This photograph from 1986 shows children posing in Palermo.

Gang City is on show at the Biennale in Venice, Italy, until the 27 November 2016 and was organised by the University and Polytechnic of Turin.