European countries are racing to control increasing infection rates, with tighter measures being imposed in several cities.
From Tuesday bars in Paris will have to shut for two weeks and the capital's restaurants and cafes must tighten their hygiene measures. Similar rules are already in force in Marseille. Paris universities can only have lecture halls half-full. The French government is alarmed that in Paris the infection rate is now above 250 per 100,000 people, and Covid patients account for more than 30% of intensive care beds.
In Moscow schoolchildren will have to stay at home for two weeks and firms have been told to keep at least 30% of staff working from home. Russia's daily infection rate has risen to 10,888 - the highest since May.
The Czech Republic has reimposed a state of emergency, as its two-week average infection rate is 303 per 100,000, with only Spain's (319) higher in Europe, according to EU experts. Czech borders remain open, but indoor gatherings are limited to 10 people maximum.
Ireland's emergency health team, the NPHET, has recommended measures almost as tight as a full lockdown. Level Five would see all indoor gatherings banned and bars and restaurants only able to do takeaways.