The government's motion said the House of Commons "deplores" the use of chemical weapons by the Assad regime and "agrees that a strong humanitarian response is required from the international community and that this may, if necessary, require military action".
It said any such action would be "legal, proportionate and focused on saving lives by preventing and deterring further use of Syria's chemical weapons" - but the motion was defeated by 285 votes to 272.
Here is a list of the 39 MPs from the coalition parties who voted against it:
Conservatives: David Amess (Southend West), Richard Bacon (Norfolk South), Steven Baker (Wycombe), John Baron (Basildon and Billericay), Andrew Bingham (High Peak), Crispin Blunt (Reigate), Fiona Bruce (Congleton), Tracey Crouch (Chatham and Aylesford), David Davies (Monmouth), Philip Davies (Shipley), David Davis (Haltemprice and Howden), Nick de Bois (Enfield North), Richard Drax (Dorset South), Gordon Henderson (Sittingbourne and Sheppey), Philip Hollobone (Kettering), Adam Holloway (Gravesham), Phillip Lee (Bracknell), Julian Lewis (New Forest East), Jason McCartney (Colne Valley), Stephen McPartland (Stevenage), Nigel Mills (Amber Valley), Anne-Marie Morris (Newton Abbot), Andrew Percy (Brigg and Goole), Sir Richard Shepherd (Aldridge-Brownhills), Sir Peter Tapsell (Louth and Horncastle), Andrew Turner (Isle of Wight), Martin Vickers (Cleethorpes), Charles Walker (Broxbourne), Chris White (Warwick and Leamington) and Dr Sarah Wollaston (Totnes)
Liberal Democrats: Gordon Birtwistle (Burnley), Michael Crockart (Edinburgh West), Andrew George (St Ives), Julian Huppert (Cambridge), Dan Rogerson (Cornwall North), Andrew Stunell (Hazel Grove), Ian Swales (Redcar), Sarah Teather (Brent Central) and Roger Williams (Brecon and Radnorshire).
One Tory, Tim Loughton (Worthing East and Shoreham), and one Lib Dem, Paul Burstow (Sutton and Cheam) voted in both lobbies, a technical abstention.
Three Conservative government ministers missed the vote and have apologised to Prime Minister David Cameron for their absence.