In pictures: The rise and fall of shopping centres
As a warning is issued that 200 shopping centres in the UK are in crisis, the BBC looks back at a time when they were the go-to place for shoppers.
Shopping arcades have been around since the 1800s, when the Burlington Arcade was opened in Mayfair, London.
But it was Birmingham's original Bull Ring Centre in 1964 that sparked a boom in US-style shopping centre complexes.
However, experts have issued a warning for their future amid a decline in "major anchor stores" and rise in online shopping.
When the Bull Ring opened its doors it was meant to be "the ultimate shopping experience", according to historian Carl Chinn.
It was described as the biggest indoor shopping centre outside the US.
Scores of other shopping centres followed its lead in bringing together many outlets in one place, and started appearing in towns and cities up and down the country.
They continued to be a favoured destination for shoppers in the 1980s and 90s.
But the rise of online retailers such as Amazon, and the economic downturn post-2008, has made life for shopping centre bosses much more challenging.
Hundreds of premises lie empty across the country, and more centres are at-risk, according to analyst Nelson Blackley from the National Retail Research Knowledge Exchange Centre.
It appears that these retail centres, which were once the hubs for shopping activity in towns and cities across the UK, will continue to face an uncertain future.