Sex toys, ancient carvings and medical artefacts will be among objects on display at a new exhibition opening in central London in November.
The Institute Of Sexology will be the first UK exhibition to bring together the pioneers of the study of sex, according to its curators.
Paintings, films and photographs of copulation will also be on display.
Featuring more than 200 objects, the show will be held at the £17.5m expansion of the Wellcome Collection.
It will look at key sexologists through history including Sigmund Freud, Marie Stopes and Alfred Kinsey and trace the experiments and studies carried out over decades.
From "Alfred Kinsey's complex coded questionnaires to Samoan jewellery to sex machines", the show will "investigate how... sexologists have shaped our ever-evolving attitudes towards sexual behaviour and identity", exhibition organisers said.
Curators said that The Institute Of Sexology will include commissions, live events, discussions and performance art and "form part of a sexology season of activity across the country".
"The Institute Of Sexology offers a complex, often contradictory story of the study of sex, and highlights the profound effect that the gathering and analysis of information can have in changing attitudes about the human condition," curator Kate Forde said.
"The exhibition presents typed diagnoses alongside handmade campaign material, scientific charts next to handwritten testimonies.
"But all are caught up in attempts to free us from the tyranny of preconceived ideas about sex, and suggest that our understanding about our sexual identities is a story of constant evolution."
Wellcome Collection - which has recently shown exhibitions on the brain and death - is part of the Wellcome Trust, a global charity dedicated to achieving improvements in human and animal health.
The Institute Of Sexology will run for one year from 20 November 2014 at the Wellcome Collection in London.