Voting papers are being sent out to residents in West Norfolk asking for their views on plans to build an incinerator near King's Lynn.
An Anglo-American firm has been appointed to build and run the plant at Saddlebow, near King's Lynn, subject to planning permission.
The postal ballot closes on 28 February with results available on 1 March.
King's Lynn and West Norfolk borough council is sending out the forms from this week.
Those backing the scheme say an incinerator could save £8m a year and divert 230,000 tonnes of household waste away from landfill.
However, opponents to the plans are concerned about possible emissions.