Two former staff members at a young offenders detention centre have appeared in court charged with the sexual and physical abuse of inmates.
Ian Nicholson, 74, and Alexander Flavell, 86, are also accused of misconduct in public office.
The pair had worked at the Medomsley Detention Centre in County Durham.
No pleas were entered at Newton Aycliffe Magistrates' Court and they were bailed to appear at Teesside Crown Court on 21 November.
Mr Nicholson faces four charges of assault occasioning actual bodily harm, three serious sexual offences, and misconduct in a public office.
Mr Flavell is accused of four charges of assault occasioning actual bodily harm, indecent assault, a serious sexual offence, and misconduct in a public office.
The men were investigated as part of Operation Seabrook, which was launched by police in 2013.
More than 1,800 men have claimed they were abused at Medomsley, which - prior to its closure in 1988 - held teenage offenders who had committed relatively minor crimes.