The cause of an accident at a cliff that led to the death of a Highlands shepherd is unknown and was unavoidable, a sheriff has said.
Sandy Robbins, 61, was riding a quad bike that went through a clifftop fence and then over the 60ft (18.2m) cliff at Kyle of Durness in Sutherland.
He died in hospital later on the same day of the accident, 31 March 2016.
Sheriff Christopher Dickson said Mr Robbins was a "conscientious worker" who did his job "without complaint".
In his determination following a fatal accident inquiry, Sheriff Dickson said the experienced shepherd was knowledgeable of the land that he worked.
The accident happened near Daill House, Achiemore.
Sheriff Dickson said the cause of the accident resulting in Mr Robbins' fall from the cliff was unknown, and that there were "no reasonable precautions" that would have prevented the accident.
He also said the quad bike he was using had no defects.
The sheriff said: "I wish to formally repeat my condolences to Mr Robbins' family in this determination."