Forces gather for UK-led Joint Warrior
Warships, aircraft and thousands of personnel are in Scotland for a UK-led military exercise.
Joint Warrior is held twice a year, in spring and autumn.
The first of this year's exercises involves more than 10,000 personnel, 35 warships, five submarines and 59 aircraft.
The Clyde is the gathering point for many of the ships and some of the aircraft have arrived at RAF Lossiemouth in Moray.
The exercise will involve live-firing training at ranges in the Highlands, including at Cape Wrath near Durness.
Last April's staging of Joint Warrior saw a delegation of Russian military personnel come to Scotland to observe one of Europe's largest Nato exercises.
The visit was in line with the UK's obligations to the Vienna Document which aims to promote mutual trust and transparency among states signed to it.
While not unusual, the visit for Joint Warrior came amid suggestions of a new Cold War.