More than half the world's children are at risk of poverty, conflict and discrimination against girls, according to a report by Save the Children.
The charity's second End of Childhood index says more than 1.2 billion children face these threats, with 153 million facing all three.
While the global situation has improved compared with last year, the charity says progress is not fast enough.
The report comes ahead of International Children's Day on 1 June.
Save the Children's index says one billion children live in countries rife with poverty, about 240 million in countries affected by conflict, and 575 million girls live in countries where discrimination against women is common.
"Because of who they are and where they live, these children risk being robbed of their childhoods and future potential," the report says.
According to the survey, released on Wednesday, the situation for children has improved in 95 of 175 countries surveyed, but deteriorated in about 40 nations.
Countries are ranked by a score system based on how much children in each country face death, malnutrition, lack of education and being forced into marriage, motherhood or work.
Singapore and Slovenia are joint first top of the childhood index rankings, followed by Norway and Sweden in joint third and Finland fifth.
At the bottom of the index is Niger, along with Mali and the Central African Republic - with eight of the bottom ten nations in west or central Africa.
Save the Children also point out that despite their dominance in economics and military might, the US (36th), Russia (37th) and China (40th) all trail countries in Western Europe.
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