State-run outlets dominate the media. Journalists operate under strict press laws and face harassment over their coverage.
Radio is the main source of information for many Burundians. Most privately-owned stations were shut after a 2015 coup attempt and have stayed closed, says Reporters Without Borders (RSF).
Some journalists have fled the country. "The media are for the most part dominated by fear, resignation and self-censorship," says RSF.
The government banned FM transmissions of BBC World Service radio in 2019, accusing it of airing a documentary that it said had damaged the country's reputation. The authorities have also suspended US government-funded Voice of America (VOA).
There were 1.6 million internet users by December 2021, comprising 12% of the population (InternetWorldStats.com).
Social media serve as news sources in place of shuttered radio stations. They are also used for attempts at spreading disinformation, says RSF.
- Le Renouveau - government newspaper
- Iwacu - private weekly, online content in English/French
- Ndongozi (Pacesetter) - founded by Catholic Church
- Arc-en-ciel (Rainbow) - private, French-language weekly
- Ubumwe (Unity) - government-owned weekly
- Television Nationale du Burundi - government-run, in Kirundi, Swahili, French and English
- TeleRenaissance - private