Djibouti's sparse media environment is dominated by the state. There are no private TV or radio stations and the government owns the main newspaper and the national broadcaster Radiodiffusion-Television de Djibouti (RTD).
"The repressive [judicial] arsenal deployed against journalists means they live in fear," says media watchdog Reporters Without Borders (RSF). It says the only Djibouti-based media are used for government propaganda.
A pro-opposition outlet, La Voix de Djibouti, operates online from Belgium.
Djibouti hosts a powerful mediumwave (AM) transmitter which broadcasts US-sponsored Arabic-language Radio Sawa programmes to East Africa and Arabia. Local FM relays carry the BBC (99.2) and American and French external broadcasters.
There were around 550,000 internet users by mid-2019 (InternetWorldStats.com), comprising 56% of the population.
The authorities keep a close eye on opposition websites, often blocking access to them inside Djibouti.