Egypt profile - Media
Egypt is a major regional media player. Its press is one of the most influential and widely-read in the region, and its TV and film industry supplies much of the Arab-speaking world with shows from its Media Production City.
The state is a major force in the media and runs many TV and radio stations, websites, newspapers and magazines.
In recent years the authorities have been increasing controls over traditional and social media to an unprecedented degree.
Many of the popular TV talk shows that once featured heated political debates have disappeared. The charge of spreading "false news" is widely used as a pretext to clamp down on online activists.
Reporters Without Borders says Egypt is "one of the world's biggest prisons" for journalists. "The authorities have waged a witch-hunt since 2013 against journalists suspected of supporting the Muslim Brotherhood," the group says.
Television is the most popular medium. There are two state-run national TVs and six regional channels. Many private networks emerged in the post-Mubarak era.
Egypt is a big force in satellite TV. Most leading Arab pay TV networks have a presence at Media Production City in Cairo. Egypt was the first Arab nation to have its own satellite, Nilesat.
There are more than 20 daily newspapers - state-run or privately-published. Print media are in decline as readers go online for news.
There were 49.2 million internet users by December 2017 - around 49.5% of the population (Internetworldstats.com). Mobile platforms account for the largest share of users.
Egypt leads the Arab region in terms of Facebook users, with nearly 34.5 million accounts by 2017.
President al-Sisi's government has tightened its control over the internet. Hundreds of websites have been blocked and online activists have been arrested.
A 2018 cyber crime law allows the authorities to block any website deemed to threaten national security or the economy.
- Al-Ahram - state-owned daily, the oldest newspaper in the Arab world
- Al-Ahram Weekly - in English
- Al-Jumhuriyah - state-owned daily
- Al-Misri al-Yawm - private daily
- Al-Shuruq - private daily
- Al-Yawm al-Sabi - private daily
- Egypt Independent - in English, sister paper of Al-Misri al-Yawm
- Daily News Egypt - private, in English
- National Media Authority (NMA) - state-run, operates domestic and satellite networks, including Nile News, Nile TV International and Nile TV thematic channels
- Dream TV - private, via satellite
- Al-Mihwar - private, via satellite
- Al-Nahar - private, via satellite
- ON E - private, via satellite
- Al-Hayah - private, via satellite
- CBC - private, via satellite
- National Media Authority (NMA) - state-run, operates national, regional and external services including flagship General Programme
- Nile FM - private, Western pop
- Nogoum FM - private, Arabic pop