State TV and radio reach the largest audiences. By 2019 there were 34 radio stations, 14 TV stations, 46 newspapers and 88 news websites, according to the media regulator.
Censorship is ubiquitous and self-censorship is commonplace, Reporters Without Borders (RSF) said in its 2019 press freedom index. Freedom House said defamation was decriminalised in 2018, but that a revised law has criminalised written content and cartoons that "humiliate" Rwandan leaders.
The BBC can be heard on FM in Kigali (93.9), Karongi (93.3) and Butare (106.1). The Voice of America and Deutsche Welle broadcast on FM in Kigali.
By late 2018 3.7 million Rwandans were online, comprising around 29% of the population (InternetWorldStats.com). There are around 620,000 social media users (We Are Social, January 2019). Facebook is the leading social media platform.
The government has increasingly blocked access to news websites based abroad, says Freedom House. It says this is partly because many journalists have fled the country and now work in exile and online.