Television is eroding radio's traditional dominance, and Tanzania has made the switch to digital TV.
Media ownership is highly concentrated. IPP Media and the state-run Tanzanian Broadcasting Corporation are major players in the broadcasting sector.
Tanzania has "suffered an unprecedented decline in press freedom" under President John Magufuli, Reporters Without Borders (RSF) said in 2019.
Freedom House says a 2016 media law allows for harsh penalties for content deemed defamatory, seditious or illegal. It says attacks on journalists have contributed to "an atmosphere of fear and repression" for independent media.
The mainland and Zanzibar have separate media policies. Islanders can pick up broadcasts from the mainland and read the mainland press.
There were 23 million internet users by December 2018 (InternetWorldStats.com). Around 4.9 million Tanzanians are active on social media (We Are Social, 2019). Facebook is the most popular platform.
Rules introduced in 2018 require bloggers and the owners of discussion platforms and streaming services to pay registration fees. In response, many of them closed their outlets, Freedom House says.