Powerful commercial interests control or influence much of the media.
The lively TV scene is dominated by free-to-air networks ABS-CBN and GMA. Some Manila-based networks broadcast in local languages. Cable TV has extensive reach.
Films, comedies and entertainment shows attract the largest audiences.
There are hundreds of radio stations. Manila Broadcasting Company is a leading network.
The private press is vigorous, comprising hundreds of newspaper titles. The most popular are Filipino-language tabloids, which can be prone to sensationalism.
Press freedom is guaranteed under the constitution. Government censorship is not a serious problem, but the Philippines is one of the most dangerous places in the world for journalists, says US-based Freedom House.
"Private militias, often hired by local politicians, silence journalists with complete impunity," says Reporters Without Borders.
By the end of 2017 there were 67 million internet users (InternetWorldStats). Facebook and Twitter are popular platforms.
There is no systematic censorship of online content, says Freedom House.
- ABS-CBN - operates stations nationally
- GMA Network - operates stations nationally
- Manila Broadcasting Company (MBC) - operates stations nationally
- Radio Mindanao Network - operates more than 50 stations nationwide
- Philippine Broadcasting Service (PBS) - government-run, operates 31 stations nationwide with emphasis on news, public affairs