Australia's media scene is creatively, technologically and economically advanced. There is a tradition of public broadcasting, but privately-owned TV and radio have the biggest audiences.
The ownership of print and broadcast media is concentrated. Leading conglomerates include News Corp Australia, Seven West Media and the merged Fairfax Media-Nine Entertainment group.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) runs national and local public radio and TV. The other main public broadcaster is the multilingual Special Broadcasting Service (SBS).
National commercial TV is dominated by three big free-to-air networks. Broadcasters must carry a minimum percentage of Australian-made programmes. Pay TV via cable, satellite and IPTV has a strong foothold.
Sports, news, game shows, imported and home-made dramas top the TV ratings. The industry has successfully exported its productions to English-speaking markets overseas.
Media freedom watchdog Reporters Without Borders says tough defamation legislation and laws on terrorism and national security have reduced the space for "demanding investigative journalism".
Around 21.7 million Australians were online by December 2018, around 88% of the population (InternetWorldStats.com).
Some 18 million Australians are active social media users (We Are Social, 2019). Facebook is the top social platform, with 16 million monthly active users by 2019.
- The Sydney Morning Herald - daily
- Herald Sun - Melbourne-based daily
- The Australian - national daily
- The Daily Telegraph - Sydney-based daily
- The Courier-Mail - Brisbane-based daily
- The West Australian - Perth-based daily
- The Age - Melbourne-based daily
- The Advertiser - Adelaide-based daily
- Australian Financial Review - business daily
- ABC - national, public
- ABC News - ABC's 24-hour news TV
- SBS TV - public, multilingual
- Seven Network - national, commercial
- Nine Network - national, commercial
- Network Ten - national, commercial
- Sky News Australia - satellite/cable news network, owned by News Corp Australia
- Foxtel - pay TV, owned by News Corp Australia and Telstra