Singapore profile - Media
Singapore's media are highly developed and tightly controlled.
There are two major players. Singapore Press Holdings is linked to the ruling party and has a near-monopoly of the press. MediaCorp, owned by a state investment agency, runs TV and radio stations.
Both companies have extended their dominance to include online media, says Reuters Institute.
Media have incurred harsh criminal penalties for "speech deemed to be seditious, defamatory, or injurious to religious sensitivities", says Freedom House. Newspapers occasionally publish critical content, although news coverage is generally pro-government.
Reporters Without Borders says the range of issues and public figures that are off limits for media coverage is growing and that self-censorship is widespread.
There were nearly 5.2 million internet users by 2019, around 88% of the population (InternetWorldStats). Major news sites must be licensed, says Freedom House.
The BBC World Service broadcasts on 88.9 FM.
Singapore Press Holdings (SPH) - publishes multiple newspapers, magazines, websites
The Straits Times - published by SPH
Business Times - published by SPH
Today - published by Mediacorp
MediaCorp - operates entertainment-based Channel 5 and Channel 8, Malay channel Suria, Mandarin-language Channel U
Channel NewsAsia - news TV operated by MediaCorp
MediaCorp - operates more than a dozen stations including English-language news and talk station 938Live, music stations and Chinese, Malay and Indian services
SPH - operates English-language One FM and Kiss 92, Mandarin station UFM